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Particulate Nitrosamines and Nitramines in Seoul and Their Major Sources: Primary Emission versus Secondary Formation
- Particulate Nitrosamines and Nitramines in Seoul and Their Major Sources: Primary Emission versus Secondary Formation
- Choi, Na Rae; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Soontae; Park, Seung Myung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Kim, Yong Pyo
- Ewha Authors
- 김용표; 이지이
- SCOPUS Author ID
- 김용표; 이지이
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
- ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 7841 - 7849
- organic nitrogenous compounds; amines; secondary organic aerosol; orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA); atmospheric reactions; primary emission; kinetics
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- SCIE; SCOPUS
- Document Type
- Seven nitrosamines and three nitramines in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) collected in 2018 in Seoul, South Korea, were quantified. Annual mean concentrations of the sum of nitrosamines and nitramines were 9.81 +/- 18.51 and 1.12 +/- 0.70 ng/m(3), respectively, and nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) and dimethyl-nitramine (DMN) comprised the largest portion of nitrosamines and nitramines, respectively. Statistical analyses such as nonparametric correlation analysis, positive matrix factorization, analysis of covariance, and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were carried out to identify contribution of the atmospheric reactions in producing NDMA and DMN. In addition, kinetic calculation using reaction information obtained from the previous chamber studies was performed to estimate concentrations of NDMA and DMN that might be produced from the atmospheric reactions. It was concluded that (1) the atmospheric reactions contributed to the concentrations of NDMA more than they did for those of DMN, (2) the contribution of atmospheric reactions to the concentrations of NDMA and DMN was significant due to high NO(2 )concentrations in winter, and (3) primary emissions predominantly affected the ambient concentrations of NDMA and DMN in spring, summer, and autumn.
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