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Role of insulin in health and disease: An update

Title
Role of insulin in health and disease: An update
Authors
Rahman M.S.Hossain K.S.Das S.Kundu S.Adegoke E.O.Rahman M.A.Hannan M.A.Uddin M.J.Pang M.-G.
Ewha Authors
Md Jamal Uddin
SCOPUS Author ID
Md Jamal Uddinscopus
Issue Date
2021
Journal Title
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN
1661-6596JCR Link
Citation
International Journal of Molecular Sciences vol. 22, no. 12
Keywords
DiseaseGlucoseHealthHomeostasisInsulinRegulation
Publisher
MDPI AG
Indexed
SCIE; SCOPUS WOS scopus
Document Type
Review
Abstract
Insulin is a polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by β cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. The hormone potentially coordinates with glucagon to modulate blood glucose levels; insulin acts via an anabolic pathway, while glucagon performs catabolic functions. Insulin regulates glucose levels in the bloodstream and induces glucose storage in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue, resulting in overall weight gain. The modulation of a wide range of physiological processes by insulin makes its synthesis and levels critical in the onset and progression of several chronic diseases. Although clinical and basic research has made significant progress in understanding the role of insulin in several pathophysiological processes, many aspects of these functions have yet to be elucidated. This review provides an update on insulin secretion and regulation, and its physiological roles and functions in different organs and cells, and implications to overall health. We cast light on recent advances in insulin‐signaling targeted therapies, the protective effects of insulin signaling activators against disease, and recommendations and directions for future research. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
DOI
10.3390/ijms22126403
Appears in Collections:
연구기관 > 약학연구소 > Journal papers
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