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The Inflammatory Response to Alcohol Consumption and Its Role in the Pathology of Alcohol Hangover
- The Inflammatory Response to Alcohol Consumption and Its Role in the Pathology of Alcohol Hangover
- van de Loo, Aurora J. A. E.; Mackus, Marlou; Kwon, Oran; Krishnakumar, Illathu Madhavamenon; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
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- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
- JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE vol. 9, no. 7
- alcohol; hangover; ethanol; acetaldehyde; acetate; oxidative stress; malondialdehyde; 8-isoprostane; cytokines; C-reactive protein
- SCIE; SCOPUS
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- An increasing number of studies are focusing on the inflammatory response to alcohol as a potentially important determinant of hangover severity. In this article, data from two studies were re-evaluated to investigate the relationship between hangover severity and relevant biomarkers of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response to alcohol. Hangover severity was significantly and positively correlated with blood concentrations of biomarkers of the inflammatory response to alcohol, in particular, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP). At 4 h after alcohol consumption, blood ethanol concentration (but not acetaldehyde) was significantly and positively associated with elevated levels of IL-6, suggesting a direct inflammatory effect of ethanol. In addition, biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e., malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostrane, were significantly correlated with hangover severity, suggesting that oxidative stress also contributes to the inflammatory response. The timing of the assessments suggests initial slow elimination of ethanol in the first hours after alcohol consumption. As a consequence, more ethanol is present in the second half of the night and the next morning, which will elicit more oxidative stress and a more profound inflammatory response. Together, these processes result in more severe hangovers.
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