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초등학교 고학년 학생의 사회정서역량 척도 개발 및 타당화

초등학교 고학년 학생의 사회정서역량 척도 개발 및 타당화
Other Titles
Development and Validation of the Social Emotional Competences Scale for Elementary School Students in Grades 4-6
Issue Date
대학원 특수교육학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Social emotional competences has been recognized as one of the essential elements that affect student's success in school. It includes intrapersonal skills such as self-regulating, motivating, coping with conflicts and interpersonal skills such as establishing and maintaining positive peer relationship, making responsible decisions, and it is further associated with academic achievement, and even school adjustment. With recognition of the importance of students' social emotional competences in better outcomes, many researchers and practitioners in the educational field have put in effort to promote students' social emotional competences by implementing various moral and character education programs, and Social and Emotional Learning(SEL) programs has been in the spotlight as the representative educational program for fostering students' social emotional development. The findings from the research review of an instrument intended to measure students' social emotional competences and other related variables conclude that the instrument developed sensitive to Korean language and culture is in short so that in many cases the researchers and practitioners translated the instruments developed in different countries and evaluated the effects of implementing SEL programs. It also concludes that the instruments intended to measure social emotional competences in Korea have difficulty in evaluating the various aspects of students' social emotional competences. Currently, in Korea the validated self-reporting instruments that allows students to evaluate their overall social emotional competences on their own. Moreover, in the case of students with cognitive difficulties, there may be problems with the reliability of the question response due to their possible difficulties in understanding of the contents of the test, so their results are often excluded from analysis. These findings were present for the necessity of this study to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating the overall social emotional competences of students which is especially sensitive to Korean language and cultures. This study was conducted in the following procedures. Followings are the steps for developing the social emotional competence scale. First, a literature review was conducted on the prior studies about SEL and social emotional competences to derive concepts and components of social emotional competences. Second, based on the finding of the review, the original measurement tools used to measure variables related to social emotional competences in the preceding study were found and 130 initial items related to the components of social emotional competences were extracted. Third, the first draft of the extracted questions was to check the content validity of the questions through written feedback and group interviews with four experts in education-related field. Afterwards, a panel of 12 experts in education field was organized to examine the content validity in two rounds of Delphi surveys to verify the overall content validity of the draft questions, thereby securing the expertise of measurement tools developed in this study and the total 88 items were selected. Fourth, a preliminary survey was conducted on 72 elementary school students in Grades 4-6 using a questionnaire containing a proven measure of content validity, and then the 88 questions were finalized by collecting opinions from respondents who participated in the preliminary survey. Afterwards, the steps for analyzing the reliability and the validity of the instrument are followed. First, the survey questionnaires finalized through the previous steps were distributed to 500 students in Grades 4-6 attending elementary schools located in S city and D city, and then 453 copies of the survey were collected. Second, among those 453 copies of the survey only 376 questionnaires were left for conducting the reliability and the validity analysis of the instrument, excluding those having at least one question left blank without responding. The final 31 items were derived from confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) that includes 'self-awareness factor'(6 items), 'self-management factor'(6 items), 'social awareness factor'(5 items), 'relationship management factor'(10 items) 'responsible decision making factor'(4 items). The result of goodness of fit of the final model of this study indicated that the research model was appropriate[χ²/df=2.032, TLI=.903, CFI=.911, RMSEA=.052]. Afterwards, correlation analysis between the Social Emotional Competences Scale(SECS) developed in this study and the two other existing standardized measurement tools including Social Skills Rating System(SSRS) and Emotional Quotient(Grades 4-6) was conducted to secure the basis for the concurrent validity. The Cronbach's reliability coefficient between the scale of this study and SSRS and EQ(Grades 4-6) was .705 and .573 respectively(p<0.01). This Cronbach's for internal consistency of the total 83 items of this scale was .970, and five main-factor's Cronbach's was ranged from .854 to .931. This results indicates that this scale has highly adequate internal consistency according to the general standards. In addition, the analysis of the internal consistency reliability was performed, and the overall Cronbach's for the final 31 items was .939 and the range of Cronbach's by components of the social emotional competences scale was at least .750 and up to .885 with moderate-to-high reliability. Finally, the Social Emotional Competences Scale consists of 31-item, 5-construct factor, 5-point Likert scale was developed and verified through the process of securing the basis of validity and reliability. The range of scores on this scale is from a minimum of zero to a maximum of 124 points, and the higher the score, the higher the respondents' social emotional competences. In conclusion, this Social Emotional Competences Scale developed in this study has been verified as a feasible measurement tool to evaluate the social emotional competences of elementary school students in Grades 4-6 through feasibility and reliability verification. The significance of this study is that it has developed a basic tool that can be used for measurement of social emotional competences of students in various experimental research and/or action research aimed at strengthening students’ social emotional competences, and that it has developed a Korean-typed measurement tool sensitive to linguistic and cultural characteristics of Korean students and education policies at school sites in Korea. This study also has the significance on developing a measurement tool that can measure elementary school students’ social emotional competences in accordance with their age and developmental stages.;학령기 학생의 일상생활 및 학교에서의 성공적인 수행을 위해서는 학령기 학생의 지식 성장뿐만 아니라 사회정서역량을 강화하는 것이 매우 중요하다. 이에 본 연구는 우리나라의 언어적·문화적 특수성에 민감하면서도 초등학교 고학년 학생들의 사회정서역량을 정확하게 측정할 수 있는 사회정서역량 척도를 개발하고 이 척도가 적절한 신뢰도와 타당도를 갖추도록 타당화하고자 수행되었다. 본 연구는 먼저 도구개발 단계를 통해 사회정서역량 초기 문항을 개발한 후, 개발된 사회정서역량 척도의 타당도 및 신뢰도의 근거를 확보하는 도구검증 단계의 절차로 실시하였다. 도구개발 절차는 첫째, 국내외 사회정서학습 관련 선행연구를 분석하여 자기인식 요인, 자기관리 요인, 사회적 인식 요인, 관계관리 요인, 책임 있는 의사결정 요인의 다섯 가지 핵심 역량으로 구성되는 이론적 틀을 도출하였다. 둘째, 이론적 분석대상 논문들에서 사용한 사회정서역량 측정 도구의 원본을 살펴보며 130개의 초기 문항을 추출하였다. 셋째, 교육 관련 전문가 패널을 구성하여 1차 내용타당도(서면 또는 면담 방식으로 실시)와 2차 내용타당도(두 차례에 걸친 델파이 조사로 실시) 검증을 실시하고 그 결과에 따른 수정을 거쳐 최종 88문항을 선별하였다. 넷째, 초등학교 고학년(4∼6학년) 학생 72명을 대상으로 예비 조사를 실시하여 문항의 전반적인 이해도에 관한 의견을 수합하여 문항을 수정한 후, 내용타당도 검증에 참여한 전문가 1인과 특수교육학 교수 1인이 최종적으로 검토하여 88문항에 대한 수정 및 보완작업을 완료하였다. 도구검증 절차는 첫째, S시와 D시의 초등학교 7곳에 재학 중인 4∼6학년 학생 500명을 대상으로 설문지를 배부하여 453명의 설문지를 회수하였다. 둘째, 회수된 453부의 설문 중 한 개의 문항이라도 응답하지 않고 빈칸으로 남겨진 설문을 제외하고 남겨진 376부의 설문지 자료를 대상으로 기초 문항 분석, 타당도 및 신뢰도 검증을 실시하였다. 셋째, 확인적 요인분석을 실시하여 자기인식 요인(6문항), 자기관리 요인(6문항), 사회적 인식 요인(5문항), 관계관리 요인(10문항), 책임 있는 의사결정(4문항)으로 구성된 31문항 척도의 적합도를 살펴보았다. 본 연구에서 설정한 연구모형의 적합도를 살펴본 결과, χ²/df=2.032, TLI=.903, CFI=.911, RMSEA=.052로 모든 적합도 지수가 적절한 수준임을 확인하였다. 공인타당도 검증을 위해 본 연구에서 개발한 사회정서역량 척도와 기존의 표준화된 측정 도구인 사회성 기술 평정척도와 정서지능검사 고학년용과의 상관계수를 살펴보았으며, 각각의 측정 도구와의 상관계수는 .705와 .573으로 유의한 상관관계를 나타냈다. 최종 확정된 사회정서역량 척도 31문항의 문항내적일관성 신뢰도 분석을 실시하였고, 전체 Cronbach's 는 .939이었고, 구성요인별 Cronbach's 의 범위는 최소 .750, 최대 .885로 적정 수준의 신뢰도를 가지는 도구임을 확인하였다. 본 연구에서 개발한 사회정서역량 척도는 다섯 가지 핵심 역량으로 구성되었고, 전체 31문항이며 5점 리커트(Likert) 척도로 응답자의 전반적인 사회정서역량을 평가할 수 있도록 개발되었다. 본 척도의 점수범위는 최소 0점에서 최대 124점이며, 점수가 높을수록 사회정서역량이 더 높은 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 본 연구에서 개발한 사회정서역량 척도는 타당도 및 신뢰도 검증을 통해 초등학교 고학년 학생들의 사회정서역량을 평가할 수 있는 타당화된 측정 도구임이 검증되었다. 본 연구는 초등학생의 사회정서역량 강화를 목표로 하는 다양한 중재 연구의 기초 정보 수집도구 및 종속변인 측정 도구로 활용될 수 있는 척도를 개발한 점, 우리나라의 언어적·문화적 특성과 학교 현장의 교육방침을 반영하여 한국형 사회정서역량 척도를 개발한 점, 일반초등교육 및 특수교육 전문가들의 내용타당도 검증을 통해 비장애학생과 장애학생 모두의 사회정서역량을 적합하게 측정할 수 있는 척도를 개발한 점에서 그 의의를 찾을 수 있다.
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