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p90RSK Inhibition Ameliorates TGF-β1 Signaling and Pulmonary Fibrosis by Inhibiting Smad3 Transcriptional Activity
- p90RSK Inhibition Ameliorates TGF-β1 Signaling and Pulmonary Fibrosis by Inhibiting Smad3 Transcriptional Activity
- Kim S.; Han J.-H.; Lee H.; Kim J.-R.; Lim J.H.; Woo C.-H.
- Ewha Authors
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- Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
- Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 195 - 210
- Pulmonary fibrosis; p90RSK; TGF-β1; ECM; EMT
- NLM (Medline)
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- BACKGROUND/AIMS: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of progressive and chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. IPF is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and destructive pathological remodeling due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Eventually, lung interstitium thickens and stiffens and breathing becomes difficult. It has been well established that the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-β1-mediated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family affects Smad signaling. p90RSK is a serine/threonine kinase and is activated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. However, the roles played by p90RSK in TGF-β1 signaling and the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remain unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether p90RSK regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis using in vitro and in vivo systems and Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, transcriptional activity assays and immunofluorescence studies. RESULTS: Pharmacological inhibition of p90RSK by FMK or inhibition of p90RSK with adenoviral vector encoding a dominant negative form of p90RSK suppressed TGF-β1-induced ECM accumulation and EMT in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Interestingly, FMK significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad3 nuclear translocation and smad binding element-dependent transcriptional activity, but not Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, FMK ameliorated pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that p90RSK plays critical roles in pulmonary fibrosis, which suggests it be viewed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of lung fibrosis. © Copyright by the Author(s). Published by Cell Physiol Biochem Press.
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