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Rhododenol Activates Melanocytes and Induces Morphological Alteration at Sub-Cytotoxic Levels

Title
Rhododenol Activates Melanocytes and Induces Morphological Alteration at Sub-Cytotoxic Levels
Authors
Kim, MinjeongLee, Chang-SeokLim, Kyung-Min
Ewha Authors
임경민김민정
SCOPUS Author ID
임경민scopus; 김민정scopusscopus
Issue Date
2019
Journal Title
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN
1422-0067JCR Link
Citation
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES vol. 20, no. 22
Keywords
rhododenolmelanocytesMelanoderm (TM)leukodermacytoskeletonmorphology
Publisher
MDPI
Indexed
SCIE; SCOPUS WOS scopus
Document Type
Article
Abstract
Rhododenol (RD), a whitening cosmetic ingredient, was withdrawn from the market due to RD-induced leukoderma (RIL). While many attempts have been made to clarify the mechanism underlying RIL, RIL has not been fully understood yet. Indeed, affected subjects showed uneven skin pigmentation, but the features are different from vitiligo, a skin hypopigmentary disorder, alluding to events more complex than simple melanocyte cytotoxicity. Here, we discovered that rhododenol treatment reduced the number of melanocytes in a pigmented 3D human skin model, Melanoderm (TM), confirming the melanocyte toxicity of RD. Of note, melanocytes that survived in the RD treated tissues exhibited altered morphology, such as extended dendrites and increased cell sizes. Consistently with this, sub-cytotoxic level of RD increased cell size and elongated dendrites in B16 melanoma cells. Morphological changes of B16 cells were further confirmed in the immunocytochemistry of treated cells for actin and tubulin. Even more provoking, RD up-regulated the expression of tyrosinase and TRP1 in the survived B16 cells. Evaluation of mRNA expression of cytoskeletal proteins suggests that RD altered the cytoskeletal dynamic favoring cell size expansion and melanosome maturation. Collectively, these results suggest that RD not only induces cytotoxicity in melanocytes but also can lead to a profound perturbation of melanocyte integrity even at sub-cytotoxic levels.
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DOI
10.3390/ijms20225665
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약학대학 > 약학과 > Journal papers
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