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Facile dimerization of viologen radical cations covalently bonded to β-cyclodextrin and suppression of the dimerization by β-cyclodextrin and amphiphiles
- Facile dimerization of viologen radical cations covalently bonded to β-cyclodextrin and suppression of the dimerization by β-cyclodextrin and amphiphiles
- Park J.W.; Choi N.H.; Kim J.H.
- Ewha Authors
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- Journal of Physical Chemistry
- Journal of Physical Chemistry vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 769 - 774
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- Dimerization of radical cations of mono-6-(1-alkyl-4,4′-bipyridino)-β-cyclodextrins (β-CD-CnV•+, n = 6, 7, 8) formed via Ru(bpy)32+-sensitized photochemical reduction of β-CD-CnV2+ was studied spectroscopically, and the results were compared with those of methylalkyl viologens. Spectral characteristics of monomer and dimer of viologen radical cations were derived. The dimerization constants have been determined to be 4.0 × 104 M-1 for β-CD-C6V•+, 8.9 × 105 M-1 for β-CD-C7V•+, and 6.8 × 106 M-1 for β-CD-C8V•+. These values are 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than those for the corresponding methylalkyl viologen radical cations. The dimer formation is driven by a large enthalpy decrease and a moderate entropy increase. The dimerization is suppressed upon addition of β-CD or amphiphilic molecules that are included into β-CD. These results indicate that the dimers are stabilized by inclusion of the alkyl chain of the 1-alkyl-4,4′-bipyridino moiety of the β-CD-CnV•+ molecule into the β-CD cavity of the counter molecule. Association constants of β-CD-CnV•+ with β-CD and amphiphilic molecules have been determined from the dependence of dimerization constants on the concentrations of β-CD or amphiphiles. The results suggested that the terminal methyl and ethyl groups of the alkyl chains of β-CD-C7V•+ and β-CD-C8V•+, respectively, are included in the β-CD cavities of the same molecules, and this intramolecular inclusion affects the association of β-CD-CnV•+ with β-CD and amphiphiles. © 1996 American Chemical Society.
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