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γ-cyclodextrin-enhanced dimerization of viologen radicals
- γ-cyclodextrin-enhanced dimerization of viologen radicals
- Lee C.; Moon M.S.; Park J.W.
- Ewha Authors
- 박준우; 이종목
- SCOPUS Author ID
- 박준우; 이종목
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Molecular Recognition in Chemistry
- Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Molecular Recognition in Chemistry vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 219 - 232
- SCIE; SCOPUS
- Document Type
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- The effects of cyclodextrins (CDs) on the monomer-dimer equilibria of 1,1′ -dialkylviologen radical cations (Cn Cn V.+ : n = 1-5) and one-electron reduced 1,1′-bis(3-sulfopropyl)viologen (SPV) were investigated spectroelectrochemically. The dimerization is enhanced upon addition of γ-CD, while the addition of α-CD and β-CD suppresses the dimerization. This is attributed to the stabilization of dimers by the inclusion of the dimer in the cavity of γ-CD. From the dependence of the apparent dimerization constants (K′D) on the concentration of γ-CD, the association constants of the monomer (KC1) and dimer (KC2) with γ-CD were determined. The KC1 value increases slightly, from 5 M-1 for n = 1 to 35 M-1 for n = 5, as the length of the alkyl substituents of viologen increases. The KC2 value depends strongly on the alkyl substituents giving the smallest value of 85 M-1 for (SPV.-)2 and the largest one of 3500 M-1 for (C4C4V.+)2. These results, together with the difference in UV-vis absorption spectra obtained in the absence and in the presence of γ-CD, suggest that the alkyl substituents and part of the bipyridine ring of viologen radicals are included in the γ-CD cavity forming dimers in which the bipyridine rings are stacked at an oblique angle.
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