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자율적 협동학습(Co-op Co-op) 모형을 적용한 기악합주 지도 방안 연구

Title
자율적 협동학습(Co-op Co-op) 모형을 적용한 기악합주 지도 방안 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Teaching Method for the Instrumental Ensemble with the Co-op Co-op Cooperative Learning
Authors
김유진
Issue Date
2017
Department/Major
교육대학원 음악교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김선미
Abstract
본 연구는 자율적 협동학습(Co-op Co-op) 모형을 적용한 기악합주 지도 방안을 모색하여 학습자간 협동학습을 통해 음악적 지식 축적과 사고 발달은 물론이고 음악을 보다 가까이서 즐길 수 있도록 하는데 목적이 있다. 음악의 다양한 활동 중 기악은 자신을 표현한다는 측면에서 의미를 갖고 있으며 중학생의 경우 변성기로 인한 높은 음역에 대한 부담감을 줄일 수 있다는 점에서 적합성을 찾을 수 있다. 또 초등교육에서 교육용 악기를 통해 기악을 경험을 한 바, 학습한 악기로 구성된 기악합주는 화음의 아름다움을 느끼고 심미적 안목을 기르는 동시에 구성원간 음악적 협동이 필수적이고 중요한 요소로 작용한다는 면에서 또 다른 음악적 기술을 학습할 수 있는 기회가 된다. 기악합주 수업방법으로 기존의 교사 주도 또는 지휘자 주도의 학습에서 벗어나 현 교육에서 중요하게 생각하고 있는 인성교육, 창의교육 등의 키워드를 바탕으로 2015 개정 교육과정에서 제시된 교수학습 방법 중 협동학습을 기악합주에 적용하였다. 협동학습의 유형 중 모둠 내 협동 뿐 아니라 모둠 간 협동을 통해 하나의 수행목표를 완성하는 ‘협동적 프로젝트(Cooperative project)’를 선택하여 경쟁을 통한 보상 보다는 학급 전체의 협동을 통한 악곡의 완주 그 자체에서 더 큰 의미를 두었다. ‘협동적 프로젝트’ 유형 중 ‘자율적 협동학습모형’은 교사가 제시한 포괄적 주제 안에서 학생이 직접 학습주제를 선정하고 주제를 세분화하여 모둠별로 협동을 통해 주제의 일부를 완성하고 이 내용을 기반하여 모둠간 협동으로 학습주제를 완성하는 형태이다. 학습자가 학습에 대한 자연스러운 호기심을 통해 능동적으로 학습에 참여할 수 있도록 하는 장점을 가지고 있으며 기악합주 활동으로 연주 기술 신장 외 다양한 음악적 사고를 발달시키고 협동적 활동을 하는데 효과적이다. 자율적 협동학습 모형을 적용한 기악합주 지도안의 포괄적 주제로 ‘비틀즈(Beatles)’를 제시하였다. 비틀즈는 대중음악 가운데 팝음악을 대표하는 그룹으로 여러 교과서에서 보편적으로 다루고 있으며 50년의 시간차에도 불구하고 학생들 사이에서 여전히 애창되고 있어 선정하게 되었다. 음악 뿐 아니라 당시 세계적으로 유행했던‘비틀즈’의 패션, 헤어스타일 등 문화적 흐름과 함께 음악을 듣고 연주하는 것이 폭넓게 이해한다는 측면에서 의미가 있어, 협동학습을 기반으로 다양한 수업활동을 지도안에 포함하여 실제 수업 적용에 도움이 되도록 하였다. 본 연구 절차는 선행연구를 통해 협동학습의 배경, 다양한 협동학습의 모형, 기악합주의 교육적 의미에 관한 이론적 배경을 제시하고 자율적 협동학습을 적용한 기악합주의 수업모형을 바탕으로 3차시로 구성된 지도안을 제시하였다. 지도안은 경기도 소재 중학교에서 2학년 8개 반, 216명을 대상으로 실제 수업에 적용했으며 수업 후 설문을 통해 적절성을 검증하였다. 이러한 기악합주의 경험을 바탕으로 학생들이 음악을 보다 쉽게 즐기고 자연스럽게 다가가는 효과를 예상해 본다.;The purpose of this study is to find a way to teach instrumental ensemble using autonomous cooperative learning. We suggest instrumental ensemble as a method that students are able to learn contents and develop musical thought through music education in which they always listen to various genres of music and express themselves in various ways. By doing so, they will familiar with music when they need music someday as a member of society. For middle school students, music is important in terms of expressing oneself. It is possible for them to experience the sounds of various musical instruments and express their own feelings and thoughts. And also, we regard the instrumental education as an appropriate measure that can reduce the burden of high pitch when their voice changes. Instrumental music can be distinguished by solo, duet, and ensemble. Middle school students have already learned how to play some instruments through elementary education. There is a high need for duet or ensemble learning with instruments that they have learned so far. In case of solo, the expressiveness of the performer is important. However, in case of ensemble, it is necessary to match not only the rhythm and the pitch but also the harmonious cooperation of expression in every instrument to express the beauty of the chords. In other words, for the ensemble, it requires a different musical skill than solo, and it gives students a new experience. For instrumental ensemble class, we need to step aside from existing teacher-led or conductor-led learning and take the cooperative learning from teaching methods that presented by 2015 amended curriculum based on the educational key words such as personality education, creativity education, and self-directed learning. The types of cooperative learning are divided into two types: 'student-team learning (STL)' which is a structure that cooperates within the group and compensates through inter-group competition, and 'cooperative project(CP)' which needs not only inter-group cooperation but also group collaboration that will complete the objective of all class members. Because of the nature of the music curriculum, the type of 'collaborative project (CP)' was chosen because it is meaningful that the whole class collaborate to complete the music rather than the special rewards through competition. Cooperative project types include various collaborative learning models such as task sharing learning(Jigsaw), autonomous cooperative learning(Co-op Co-op), learning together(LT). In this study, autonomous cooperative learning was applied. The autonomous cooperative learning chooses the learning topics through the whole class discussion on the comprehensive subject presented by the teacher and subdivides the learning topics into group topics. It is sort of a structure in which they select group topics to solve by the group, and then divide the group topics into the sub-topics again, and the roles are assigned among the respective members. The learning method is that each member learns about his/her sub-major, and when he/she completes it, he/she completes group topics by sharing the contents of learning through presentations in group and then presents group topics to the whole class. In doing so, the learning topic selected by whole class will be complete. In other words, through the cooperative work of each group, they accomplish all group topics, and through the cooperation between the groups, they complete the learning topic. In this study, we developed a teaching model of instrumental ensemble using autonomous cooperative learning and proposed teaching plan of instrumental ensemble. Each instruction and timetable was written with a comprehensive theme called 'The Beatles' for second grade students in middle school. 'The Beatles' is a representative group of pop music among popular music. Various pieces of music are widely included in many textbooks, and students still love to sing its songs as popular music. We consider it meaningful for learning to study not only music but also the various cultures left by the group 'The Beatles' and listening to music and playing music. The teaching plan is composed of a total of three classes, and it is included in various instructional activities to make cooperative learning effective in class. The procedure of this study presents the theoretical background based on the previous researches on the educational meaning of the instrumental ensemble, the background of cooperative learning, previous studies on various models, and tried to find the each teaching method by developing the instructional model of instrumental ensemble applying autonomous cooperative learning. The developed instructional model and each instruction was applied to the actual class in 8 classes of second grade in a middle school in Gyeonggi-Do. And the questionnaires were used for the verification after the class. Although autonomous cooperative learning is different from traditional learning method, such as reduced teacher intervention and student-centered class. However, teachers should help to understand clearly and cooperate with characteristic and educational meaning of autonomous cooperative learning model. In the course of applying the ensemble class, each member of the group undergoes a collaborative process at the stage of completing group subjects through individual practice. The members of each group mutually depend on the way of playing, the concept of music and make music through communication with members in which they agree on the expression of music and cooperate to find ways to express themselves through music in group. Moreover, by completing the musical piece of the class topic through cooperation between the groups, it is easy to feel satisfaction and accomplishment feeling by the completion of the sub-topic of each member. Through this experience of instrumental ensemble, we expect the effect that students are likely to approach and feel music more easily and naturally.
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