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dc.contributor.advisor이혜성-
dc.contributor.author김민아-
dc.creator김민아-
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-24T01:03:52Z-
dc.date.available2017-03-24T01:03:52Z-
dc.date.issued2015-
dc.identifier.otherOAK-000000111292-
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.ewha.ac.kr/handle/2015.oak/234812-
dc.identifier.urihttp://dcollection.ewha.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000111292-
dc.description.abstract소비자들이 경험하는 제품의 감각적 특성이 품질 결정에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 요인으로 중요시 됨에 따라, 소비자가 지각하는 제품의 감각 및 감성 품질을 객관적•체계적으로 평가하고 과학적으로 해석할 수 있는 평가방법을 개발하는 것이 요구된다. 본 연구에서는 소비자의 감각 및 감성 품질을 보다 정확하게 측정함으로써 소비자 행동을 보다 정확하게 예측하고자, 소비자 본연의 인식전략을 활용한 평가 방법을 개발하고, 또한 소비자들이 실제 생활에서 정보 처리하는 과정을 평가상황에 융합시키고자 하였다. 연구 2, 3에서는, 소비자가 지각하는 제품의 감각 차이를 올바르게 측정하기 위하여 종합적 차이식별 검사방법인 A-부A 검사와 일•이점 검사방법을 활용하였다. 보다 신뢰성 있는 검사결과를 위해서는 평가원들이 평가하고자 하는 제품의 감각 및 감성 품질에 대하여 안정적으로 기억하고 이를 바탕으로 응답하는 것이 요구된다. 따라서 보다 효과적으로 제품에 대한 기억을 증진시키고, 안정화된 평가기준을 바탕으로 제품에 대한 평가를 가능하게 하고자, 감성적 기준틀(affective reference frame)을 평가방법에 융합하였고, 이와 같은 평가방법에서 보다 높은 차이식별력이 확인되었다. 차이식별검사의 경우, 검사방법의 올바른 적용과 과학적 통계분석을 위해 어느 정도의 차이가 소비자에게 있어 ‘의미 있는 감각 차이’인지, 즉 어느 수준의 식품 감각특성 차이가 소비자의 행동에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 차이인지를 설정하는 것 또한 요구된다. 따라서 연구 4에서는 소비자가 지각하는 제품의 감각 특성을 보다 정확하게 측정하는 것에서 더 나아가, 어느 정도의 차이가 소비자에게 있어 ‘의미 있는 감각 차이’인지를 측정할 수 있는 평가방법이 제안되었다. 제품에 대한 감각 차이뿐 아니라, 제품에 대한 소비자의 기호 및 선호 측정은 제품의 품질 결정에 필수적인 요소이다. 이를 위해 이점 선호도 검사와 기호 척도법이 평가절차가 간단하기 때문에 어느 누구나 쉽게 수행할 수 있다는 장점이 있어 보편적으로 활용되어 왔으나, 두 검사방법 모두 평가 상황에 기인하여 잘못된 응답을 도출할 수 있다는 문제점이 있다. 즉, 소비자들이 평가 상황에서 실제로 제품들 간에 선호 또는 기호 차이가 존재하지 않더라도 해당 제품들을 식별하고자 하는 경향성이 있으며, 이와 같은 경향성은 잘못된 결과를 유도할 수 있다. 따라서 연구 5에서는 기존 이점 선호도 검사에서의 평가시료 제시 방법을 변형한 새로운 평가 방법을 제안하였고, 이를 통해서 잘못된 선호 응답을 규명하고 이와 같은 응답을 선호도 없음으로 처리함으로써 보다 신뢰성 있는 선호도 검사 결과를 도출하였다. 연구 6에서는 소비자의 실제 제품에 대한 사용 및 구매상황을 연상시킴으로써 인지적 평가기준을 안정화할 수 있다는 가정 하에 인지적 준비과정(cognitive warm-up) 단계가 개발되었고, 인지적 준비과정이 선행된 기호 척도법에서 보다 안정적인 제품 품질 식별력이 도출되었다. 그러나 인지적 준비과정이 선행됨에도 불구하고, 기호 척도법에서는 대조효과가 필연적으로 발생되는 요소로 밝혀짐에 따라 인지적 준비과정을 융합한 새로운 간접 척도법이 개발되었고, 이를 통해 보다 재현성 있는 제품 품질 식별력이 도출되었다. 이와 같은 연구결과는 소비자가 지각하는 제품의 감각 및 감성 품질을 올바르게 측정하기 위해서는 제품의 품질 특성이 인지 기반에서 우선적으로 올바르게 유발되어야 하며, 궁극적으로 지각된 감각이 맥락화된 안정한 기준상에서 평가되어야 함을 나타낸다. ;Knowing whether consumers can notice differences between products, and how such differences change their acceptance is very important for the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry. This understanding allows companies to make well-informed decisions for many business objectives, such as cost saving, harmonization, flexible manufacturing, etc. In order to make good quality decisions, we need consumer test methods that use ecologically valid sensory information of products and accurately quantify them. The theme of my Ph.D. thesis was to develop more ecological and powerful consumer test method for measuring the sensory perceptual and preferential (or affective) discriminability based on the Signal Detection theory. The first three studies focused on developing a better measurement method for the sensory perceptual discriminability using consumers. To achieve this, ways to optimize the test methods were investigated in relation to the concept of the test practicality and operational power. Practically, in situations, such as reformulation and cost reduction, a control sample is available and a sample familiar to consumers may actually exist. Thus, how to incorporate the idea of the reference frame that consumers may have into a practical testing method is a part of the key content for optimizing the consumer discrimination test method. The A-Not A difference test is one of the commonly used test methods having the reference product explicitly in a test. In Chapter 2, for A-Not A difference test, an effective familiarization procedure was investigated. The use of a brand image for the reference “A” increased the A-Not A performance. Although the effects of such familiarization were confirmed using analytical sensory panels, it can be also useful for consumers. Accordingly, in Chapter 3, the duo-trio difference test incorporating such affective reference framing was investigated as the more suitable test design for the consumer discrimination test method. The duo-trio test using the affective reference frame (either with the brand name encoded or with the preferred reference), were found to be superior to the triangle test. The methodology was further modified in Chapter 4 not only to measure consumer perceptual discriminability but also to define the consumer-relevant sensory difference, i.e. the maximum sensory difference to change consumers’ preference to the samples. Repeated preferred-reference duo-trio test, each preceded by a paired-preference test, was found to be a successful design for applying the consumer sensory discrimination methodology to evoke an affective-based perceptual process. The design was also effective in providing a way to define the consumer-relevant sensory difference. Consumer preference and acceptance tests are generally used to determine the sensory quality between the products. The most commonly used methods to quantify differences in consumer affective responses to product sensory properties, are the paired-preference test and hedonic rating, which were studied in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively. In Chapter 5, a new paradigm of the difference-preference test was designed to reduce the preference bias. Using this design, the shifting preference responses were identified as ad hoc preferences which were generated by hidden demand characteristics although there are no meaningful differences in sample preference. It was confirmed that the preference measures were become more robust when the shifting preference responses were treated as no preference responses and the presentation order of the reference was counterbalanced. In Chapter 6, a cognitive warm-up (CWU) procedure was applied to hedonic rating in order to stabilize consumers’ evaluative criteria by evoking their personal evaluation context, and such CWU procedure was further modified to combine with an in-direct scaling measure to improve the statistical accuracy by accounting for the way consumers process the information. For the in-direct scaling measure in conjunction with the CWU, the test format of using a reminder design was applied to control the contrast effects. The effects of such methodological interventions were investigated in terms of the robustness of the affective product discriminations. The results indicate that the CWU had a stabilizing effect on the subjects’ evaluative criteria who were identified as having low reflection, resulting in more robust product discrimination, and in-direct scaling in conjunction with the CWU generated repeatable results across experimental contexts demonstrating a stabilization of the evaluative criterion.-
dc.description.tableofcontentsCHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 A. LITERATURE REVIEW 1 B. OVERVIEW OF THE THESIS 10 REFERENCES 15 CHAPTER II: Discriminations of the A-Not A difference test improved when “A” was familiarized using a brand image 25 Abstract 26 A. INTRODUCTION 27 B. MATERIALS & METHODS 31 1. Food samples 31 2. Subjects and experimental design 31 3. Test procedures 34 4. Data analysis 41 C. RESULTS 46 1. 2-AFCR Test: pre-sensitivity test 46 2. A-Not A Test: discrimination test after familiarization 48 3. Comparison of d' estimates obtained from 2-AFCR and A-Not A tests 50 D. DISCUSSION 53 REFERENCES 61 CHAPTER III: Higher performance of constant-reference duo-trio test incorporating affective reference framing in comparison with triangle test 67 Abstract 68 A. INTRODUCTION 69 B. MATERIALS & METHODS 79 1. Food samples 79 2. Subjects and experimental design 79 3. Test procedures 82 4. Data analysis 87 C. RESULTS 91 1. Comparison of test performance among the four protocols: a triangle and three versions of duo-trio tests 91 2. Examination of the sample presentation sequence and test order effects on the test performance within a triangle and three versions of duo-trio tests 95 3. Comparison of test performance within each group for three protocols: three versions of duo-trio tests 99 D. DISCUSSION 104 REFERENCES 115 CHAPTER IV: Affective discrimination methodology: Determination and use of a consumer-referent sensory difference for food quality maintenance 121 Abstract 122 A. INTRODUCTION 123 B. MATERIALS & METHODS 129 1. Food samples 129 2. Subjects and experimental design 129 3. Test procedures 133 C. RESULTS 136 1. Determination of affective discriminators: analyses of the individual‟s repeated preference data 136 2. Comparison of the consumer sensory discriminability obtained from affective vs analytical duo-trio methods 138 3. Determination of the consumer-relevant sensory difference 143 D. DISCUSSION 146 REFERENCES 154 CHAPTER V: Paired-preference tests using difference-preference design with perceptual reference: Psychological biases and meaningful preference 159 Abstract 160 A. INTRODUCTION 161 B. MATERIALS & METHODS 168 1. Consumers 168 2. Food samples 168 3. Experimental design and test procedures 169 4. Data analysis 171 C. RESULTS 173 1. Examination of psychological biases in preference responses 173 2. Computation of sample preference for a group of consumers using a balanced-reference difference-preference test design 178 3. Examination of effects of using difference-preference test format on the perceptual discrimination 180 D. DISCUSSION 182 REFERENCES 191 CHAPTER VI: Consumer context-specific sensory acceptance tests: Application of a cognitive warm-up and development of an in-direct measure 199 Abstract 200 A. INTRODUCTION 202 B. STUDY 1: EFFECTS OF A COGNITIVE WARM-UP ON AFFECTIVE PRODUCT DISCRIMINATION 213 1. Materials and methods 213 2. Results 221 C. STUDY 2: MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE USING IN-DIRECT SDT SCALING IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE COGNITIVE WARM-UP OF PRODUCT BENEFIT 229 1. Materials and methods 229 2. Results 236 D. DISCUSSION 245 CHAPTER VII: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 257 Abstract in Korean (국문초록) 265-
dc.formatapplication/pdf-
dc.format.extent6842722 bytes-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisher이화여자대학교 대학원-
dc.subject.ddc600-
dc.titleDevelopment of more ecological and powerful sensory discrimination and acceptance test methodology using affective reference framing-
dc.typeDoctoral Thesis-
dc.creator.othernameKim, Min A-
dc.format.pagexi, 260 p.-
dc.contributor.examinerMichael O’Mahony-
dc.contributor.examinerMichael J. Hautus-
dc.contributor.examinerDanielle van Hout-
dc.contributor.examiner이승주-
dc.contributor.examiner이혜성-
dc.identifier.thesisdegreeDoctor-
dc.identifier.major대학원 식품공학과-
dc.date.awarded2015. 2-
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