Background: The major concern with the use of tranexamic acid is that it may promote a hypercoagulable state and increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly when chemical thromboprophylaxis is not used. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion amounts and increases the prevalence of DVT and PE in the patients undergoing primary cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) without the use of routine chemical thromboprophylaxis. Methods: There were 480 patients (582 hips) in the control group who did not receive tranexamic acid and 487 patients (584 hips) in the study group who received tranexamic acid. Mechanical compression device was applied without any chemical thromboprophylaxis. Transfusion rates and volumes were recorded. DVT was diagnosed using both sonogram and venogram at 7 or 8 days postoperatively. All patients had pre- and postoperative perfusion lung scanning to defect pulmonary embolism (PE). Results: Intraoperative (614 vs 389 mL) and postoperative blood loss (515 vs 329 mL) and transfusion volumes (3 units vs 1.5 units) were significantly lower (P < .001) in the tranexamic acid group. The prevalence of DVT was 15% (87 of 582 hips) in the control group and 18% (105 of 584 hips) in the tranexamic acid group. No fatal PE occurred in either group. Conclusion: The use of tranexamic acid reduces the volume of blood transfusion and does not increase the prevalence of DVT or PE in the patients who did not receive routine chemical thromboprophylaxis after primary cementless THA. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.