Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Countless efforts have been made to improve the survival of ovarian cancer patients by clinicians as well as basic researchers so far. As a result of those extensive translational researches some of promising molecular targets and its proper therapies are introduced into practice for treating intractable ovarian cancer, which includes anti-angiogenic therapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and other modulators of cancer-related signaling pathways. Current trend of translational researches in ovarian cancer treatment are mainly focused on discovering companion diagnostics which can categorize the subgroup of patient having specific biomarker that may serve as a target of new treatment because the consequent outcome of new therapy varies depending on the molecular profile of each patient. It is important for clinician to consider each ovarian cancer patients to have a possible therapeutic target and to examine the tissue biopsies with available companion diagnostics. In addition more interest and endeavor should be given to the clinical trials to apply the result of up-to-date translational researches.