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Effects of nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and their mixture on the viviparous swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri)
- Effects of nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and their mixture on the viviparous swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri)
- Kwak, HI; Bae, MO; Lee, MH; Lee, YS; Lee, BJ; Kang, KS; Chae, CH; Sung, HJ; Shin, JS; Kim, JH; Mar, WC; Sheen, YY; Cho, MH
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY
- ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 787 - 795
- swordtail; endocrine disruptor; vitellogenesis; nonylphenol; bisphenol A
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
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- A number of fish species have been used for studies on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, despite the widespread use of oviparous fish, relatively little attention has been given to viviparous species. This study investigated the effects of EDCs in a viviparous fish and examined the possible usefulness of the fish as an alternative model for the studies on EDCs. Swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) were exposed to nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and their mixture. Both short-term (3-d) and relatively long-term (60-d) exposures were carried out using adult male and 30-d-old juvenile fish, respectively. Following the short-term exposure, both NP and BPA caused vitellogenin mRNA expression. Flow cytometric analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay on the testes of treated fish indicated reproductive damage. Histopathological analysis found degenerative and necrotic cells in seminiferous tubules following the exposure to 100 ppb NP. The testes with lesions were also associated with highly suppressed spermatogenesis. Following the long-term exposure, both NP and BPA exposures significantly affected the growth of swordtails. In all cases, the results showed that the mixture was always more potent than a single chemical and that swordtail fish can be a useful model for the study of endocrine disruptors.
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