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Johannes Brahms 의 Violin Sonata No.1 in G Major, Op. 78 에 대한 분석 연구

Johannes Brahms 의 Violin Sonata No.1 in G Major, Op. 78 에 대한 분석 연구
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A Study of Johannes Brahms Violin Sonata No. 1 in G Major, op. 78
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
The following paper is an analysis and a research on the Violin Sonata No.1 in G Major, Op. 78 by Johannes Brahms, 1833 - 1897. In 1833, Johannes Brahms was born in the northwestern port city, Hamburg of Germany. Since his childhood, he learned about absolute music: musical style influenced by Bach’s polyphonic characteristic and Beethoven’s classical characteristic. During his youth, he met a violinist Joseph Joachim, composer Robert Alexander Schumann, and his spouse Clara Wieck Schumann who led Brahms to begin his life as a composer. Brahms showed an outstanding talent in composing for chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra and for voice and chorus. Violin Sonata No. 1 was composed between 1878 and 1879 at his summer residence near the beautiful lake Worth located in Pörtschach am Wörthersee, southern Austria. The sonata consists of elegant melody that illustrates the scenery of the lake. However at the same time, the piece underlies with Brahms's distinctive style that contains melancholy and isolation. It seems to reflect on his adoration and impression of Italia’s bright and passionate sound while traveling in the spring of 1878. Brahms’s Violin Sonata No.1 is known as “Rain Sonata”. This is because the first melody from the third movement shares the same motif as one of his songs . Although Brahms lived in the 19th century, a romantic-era, he did not become stranded to compose according to the norm but instead he pursued and developed his own musical style. He composed music with romantic and lyrical melodies while pertaining to the classical form and structure. As a result, many people considers Brahms to be the pioneer of the “Classical Romanticism”. The violin sonata No.1 in G major, Op. 78 consists of three movements. The first movement is in Sonata allegro form; the second movement is in ternary form and the third movement is in rondo form. This demonstrates that Brahms inherited the sonata formation from Beethoven. However, despite its traditional structure, the main melody presents elegance and romanticalness which shows Brahms’uniqueness to fulfill both lyricism and romanticism. Due to each movement having an organic relationship with each other, the piece holds itself together well as an unified unit. Applications of the various rhythms including syncopation, cross rhythm, hemiola, harmonies including diminished seventh chords, continuous seventh chords throughout the piece shows innovative approaches of Brahms. The frequent uses of contrary motion and canon show outstanding counterpoint compositional skills. Moreover, the balance and contrast of violin and piano effectively express the stereophonic sound. Brahms is considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Classical masters and developed counterpoint. However, with positioning romantic and lyrical melodies, he created bold new approaches to music. His traditional but innovative style is well demonstrated in the Violin Sonata no.1 in G Major op. 78, highly evaluated by the contemporaries with his great influence over a generation of composers and his musical achievement.;브람스는 바하 (Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685 – 1750), 베토벤 (Ludwig van Beethoven, 1770 - 1827) 의 뒤를 이어 독일의 정통성을 계승한 작곡가이다. 그는 화려한 낭만주의가 꽃 피웠던 19세기에 살았으나 시대의 흐름을 따르기보다는 독자적인 어법을 발전시켰다. 그는 절대음악을 위한 건축적 사고를 함과 동시에 정통 고전주의 양식 위에 낭만적이고 서정적인 음악을 작곡하여 자신만의 스타일을 만들어냈으며 그렇기에 많은 사람들은 그를 ‘고전적 낭만주의’의 대표자라고 생각한다. 이는 전체적인 그의 실내악곡, 협주곡, 교향곡에서도 찾아 볼 수 있는데 특히 실내악에서 고전주의 양식과 낭만성의 융합, 음질의 본질적인 융합을 잘 나타내어 실내악양식의 진수를 보여준다고 평가 받고 있다. 그가 지은 바이올린 소나타 3개 (No. 1 Op. 78, No. 2 Op. 100, No. 3 Op. 108) 는 1876 – 1890 년에 지어졌다. 이 시기 감정의 자유와 사고의 융통성을 구조의 질서와 결합시켜 그가 추구하던 융합이 완성되었던 시기이다. Milton Cross : <“ Johannes Brahms ” Encyclopedia of the great composer and their Music Vol.Ⅰ> (Garden city : Doubleday & company, inc , 1962) p.124 바이올린 소나타 제 1 번 사장조, Op. 78 은 3악장으로 구성되어 있으며, 1악장은 소나타형식 (sonata - allegro form), 2악장은 3부형식 (ternary form), 3악장은 론도형식 (rondo form) 으로 이루어져 있다. 이는 고전주의의 소나타 형식을 그대로 계승한 것으로 구성은 베토벤의 형식적인 틀을 따랐음을 알 수 있다. 그러나 각 주제의 선율은 우아하고 낭만적인 멋이 깃들어 있어 그의 독자적인 서정성과 낭만성이 충만함을 알 수 있다. 이 곡은 그의 가곡 No. 3 (Regenlied) 와 No. 4 (Nachklang) 의 선율을 인용하여 작곡하였는데 이 선율들은 2악장의 주제와 3악장의 도입부에서 발견될 수 있다. 또한 각 악장에서 찾아 볼 수 있는 모방진행과 반복진행의 대위법적 기법, 리듬의 확대와 축소는 이 소나타의 전체적인 상호간의 통일성과 유기성을 알 수 있게 한다.
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