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Ludwig van Beethoven의 Sonata in F Major, Opus 17 for Horn and Piano 분석연구

Ludwig van Beethoven의 Sonata in F Major, Opus 17 for Horn and Piano 분석연구
Other Titles
A Study on Sonata in F Major, for Horn and Piaon, Opus 17 by Ludwig van Beethoven
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
고전시대를 대표하는 루트비히 반 베토벤(Ludwig van Beethoven, 1770∼1827)은 호른을 대표하는 곡으로 를 작곡하였으며 호른의 역할을 화음 또는 보조적 멜로디를 연주하는 것에 그치지 않고 기술적으로 성장시켰다. 베토벤의 음악적 성향은 유명한 지휘자 겸 평론자인 빌헬름 펜 렌츠(Wilhelm ven Lenz, 1809∼1833)에 의해 구분하였다. 제1시기는 1782년에서 1802년이며 아버지와 많은 스승들로부터 음악을 배우며 처음 작곡을 시작한 시기이고, 대표적인 작품으로는 와 <교향곡 1번>, <교향곡 2번>있다. 2시기는 1802년에서 1816년으로 고전양식 안에서 크게 벗어나지 않고 자신만의 개성을 살렸으며 대표적인 작품으로는 <교향곡 3번>에서 <교향곡 8번>과 오페라 <피델리오(Fidelio, Op.72)>와 <에그몬트 서곡 (Egmont, Op.84)>이다. 청각의 상실로 인한 명상적인 3시기는 1816년에서 1827년으로 고전양식에 얽매이지 않고 확고한 자신의 스타일을 완성하였으며 작품으로는 <교향곡 9번>과 <장엄미사>가 대표적이다. 호른 소나타는 3악장 형식으로 구성되어 있으며, 이 곡의 특징은 1악장 발전부에서 1주제보다 2주제가 먼저 나오는 것과 2악장을 끝맺지 않고 3악장을 attacca로 넘어가는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 베토벤의 호른 소나타작품을 통해 고전시대의 음악적 특징과 곡의 형식 및 호른 연주기법으로 인한 음악적 흐름의 표현방법과 그의 음악특징을 알아보고, 또한 당시 쓰이던 악기인 내추럴 호른과 그 이후에 악기기술의 발달로 발전한 밸브 호른의 연주법을 비교분석하여 작품 연주에 어떤 변화가 있는지 살펴보고자한다.; Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in 1770, was a representative composer in the early 18th century. This thesis examined his life, music, and the techincal materials included all his work conscientiously through “Sonata in F Major, Op.17 for Horn and Piano, 1801”. Sonata, which was created in 1801, is made up of three movements totally. The increased middle-class by the Industrial Revolution in 18th century(1760∼1840), had led people to seek their cultural rights so that the public concert had appeared for the people who want to enjoy more of their rights. Along with these social background, the musical tendency has also been altered about the preference on the music from fancy, complex, difficult one for minority to simple and refined music for the general public. During this period, the structural development of musical instruments had been made to achieve more convenient musical effects and to change the performance technique into the valve horn. Ludwig van Beethoven(1770∼1827) is the one of greatest composer representing classic music. He had practiced the music from his early ages and expressed his own unique styles such as wind instruments usage, more fancy and loud music than before, and program music which has a title for music. He had written experimental and challenging musics amongst classic musics, especially he had composed chamber musics prior to the symphony which made him more important for wind instruments in the aspect of instrumentation. The musical tendency of Ludwig van Beethoven has been categorized into 3 stages by Wilhelm ven Lenz(1809∼1833) who was a famous conductor and a critics as well as a biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven. This study shall examine musical characteristics, formalities of music, and the expression method & its characteristic on the musical stream by a horn performance technique within the classic era through "Sonata in F Major, Op.17 for Horn and Piano, 1801"(the 1st stage). With these in mind, the study has analysed the performance of technically improved valve horn against the natural horn which was the common at that time, and the results are as follows; The only horn sonata of Ludwig van Beethoven has been consisted with 3 movements with an antiphonal formation of horn & piano, and the formality of music has been very distinctive that attacca is used in-between the 2nd movement & the 3rd movement while the classic style is remained. The horn which was not getting much attention at that time, has been used in sonata music as an solo so that this has made the horn into the new perspectives as of a solo instrument. Based on the analysis of horn sonata by Ludwig van Beethoven, along with the horn development history there are differences in the performance technique between the natural horn and the valve horn. The natural horn has differences in tone quality and unstable tune due to the performance by hands, and the valve horn, by contrast, has a simple key to perform stable tune without any differences in tone. Upon these analysis, the study shall be able to find any changes in musical formality of Ludwig van Beethoven as well as the development history of the performance technique of horn.
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