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고린도후서에 나타난 적대자들과 바울의 사도직 이해

고린도후서에 나타난 적대자들과 바울의 사도직 이해
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(A) Study on the Identity of the Opponents and the Understandings of the Apostleship between Paul and his opponents in 2 Corinthians : centering around chapters 10-13
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대학원 기독교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
This paper was intended to clarify the identity of the opponents and to find the understandings of the apostleship between Paul and his opponents through the chapters 10-13 in 2 Corinthians. There are manay and various hypothesis concerning the identity of the opponents viewed in Pauline letters. Recognizing there are many problems in their methodology, I critisized the representatives of them by using J.L.Sumney's Method, Which was based on the Historical Criticism. He suggested three major principles to identify the opponents in Pauline letters. They are as follows: First, historical reconstruction of the early Christianity can not determine the identity of the opponents. Second, each of Pauline letters must be interpreted individually. Third, the paragraphs in each letter must be used gradedly according to their references of certainity and reliability, which provide the informations on the opponents. This criticism shows that Baur, Schmithals, Georgi, Friedrich and Kasemann commonly committed all of these principles. Whereas Sumney emphasized his second point too strong to consider the feeble connections between 1 and 2 Corinthians. Concentrating soley on identifying the opponents as Pneumatics, he seemed not to care for their exact origin. Through the exegisis of the texts including the chaps.10-13, I tried to reveal the identity of the opponents and to grasp the concepts of the apostleship of Paul and hisopponents. The followings are what I reached the conclusions: the opponents are Jewish Christian Pneumatics who emphasized glorious, succesful and powerful life, which was endowed-spirit. They made their life style the criterion for the apostle and criticised Paul, whose way of life was rather contrary to them. They doubted his apostleship. The evidences they claimed for the apostle included powerful demeanos, fluent and persuasive speech, miracle-workings, vision and ecstasy expeiences, the right of the support etc. They attributed all of them to the Spirit and the right of the support was the important issue for them to attack Paul's apostleship. On the contrary, Paul did not think the apostleship was based on his divine personality. He realized in him the life of cross including his weakness, humbleness and misfortunes. For Paul, they were true evidences and marks of the apostle. His emphasis on the cross shows his belief that he would anticipate future-resurrection after bearing the cross in his life. Wheareas his opponents did not see the dimension of "not yet", he clearly awared it and was willing to endure his crossified life. Therefore, the sharp controverses between Paul and his opponents are due to their different lives as apostles and thus, their differnt understandings of the apostleship.;본 논문에서는 바울 서신들에 나타나는 바울의 적대자들에 대한 여러 가설들을 연구사적으로 살펴보면서 세 가지 범주에 근거해서 방법론적으로 비판하며, 고린도후서 10-13장을 중심으로 고린도후서에 나타나는 바울의 적대자들의 정체를 밝히고 적대자들과 바울이 각기 사도직을 어떻게 이해했는지 고찰하려고 한다. 바울과 적대자들 사이의 논쟁이 분명히 드러나는 부분인 고린도후서 10-13장에는 1-9장과의 대조로 인한 고린도후서의 통일성 문제와 이 부분이 과연 "눈물의 서신"(고후2:4)인가하는 두가지 문제가 있다. 본 논문에서는 10-13장이 1-9장과는 구별되는 독자적인 서신으로서 "눈물의 서신"과 동일시하기에는 그 증거가 불충분함을 밝혔다. 바울 서신들에 나타나는 적대자들의 정체와 관련해서는 유대화주의자들, 영지주의자들, 신적 인간들, 성령주의자들 등 여러 학자들의 다양한 가설들이 있다. 본 논문에서는 그들의 방법론에 많은 문제들이 있음을 지적하고 J.L. Summey의 역사 비평학적 기준에 근거한 방법론적 원칙들을 사용하여 여러 가설들 중 대표적인 입장들을 비판하였다. 또한 고린도후서 10-13장의 본문 분석을 통해 적대자들의 정체를 밝히고, 그들과 바울이 각기 사도직을 어떻게 이해했는지 살펴 보았다. 그 결과, 적대자들은 유대적 배경을 가진 그리스도교인들로서 성령에 근거한 성공적이며 능력있는 삶을 주장하는 성령주의자들(Pneumatics)임이 드러났다. 이들의 입장은 그리스도의 십자가를 강조하며, 사도로서 약함과 고난의 십자가적 삶을 살아가는 바울과는 대조된다. 그리고 고린도후서 10-13장에 나타나는 바울과 그의 적대자들 사이의 날카로운 논쟁의 근저에는 사도로서의 서로 다른 삶들과 사도직에 대한 상이한 이해가 깔려 있다.
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