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여자 운동선수의 역할갈등에 관한 연구

여자 운동선수의 역할갈등에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Role Conflict among Female Athletes
Issue Date
대학원 체육학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 연구는 여자 운동선수의 역할 갈등이 기본적으로 여성과 운동선수라는 양립불가능한 역할기대에서 기인한다는 가정에 기초를 두고 조직적인 스포츠에 참가하고 있는 여자 운동선수의 인지적, 경험적 역할갈등에 영향을 미치는 스포츠 관련 요인을 경험적 측정 자료를 이용하여 규명하는데 목적이 있다. 이와 같은 목적을 달성하기 위하여 집락 무선 표집법을 이용, 대한체육회 산하 서울시 체육회에 등륵되어 있는 대학 여자 운동선수 209명을 연구대상으로 표집하였다. 본 연구에서 여자 운동선수의 역할갈등을 밝히기 위하여 사용한 도구는 설문지이며, Sage와 Loudermilk(1979)가 여성과 운동선수로서의 역할수행에 있어 갈등의 정도를 측정하기 위하여 고안한 설문내용을 Anthrop과 Allison(1983)이 수정, 보완한<여자 운동선수의 역할갈등에 관한 설문지(Questionnaire for the Role Conflict in Female Athletes:QRCFA)를 기초로 하여 본 연구의 설문지 초안을 작성하였다. 작성된 설문지 초안은 예비검사(Pilot test)를 통하여 설문 내용과 번역의 타당도 및 신뢰도를 검증할 다음 수정, 완성하였다. 자료분석을 위하여 본 연구에게 사용할 통계분석 기법은 t 검증과 일원변량 분석(One-way Anova)이었다. 이상의 연구방법과 절차를 통하여 여자 운동선수의 역할 갈등에 대한 연구가설을 검증한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 유도할 수 있었다. 첫째, 사회적으로 여성에게 인정된 스포츠에 참가하고 있는 운동선수가 사회적으로 여성에게 인정되지 않은 스포츠에 참가하고 있는 운동선수에 비하여 사교활동에 대한 인지적 역할갈등은 높은 반면, 운동수행에 대한 경험적 역할 갈등은 낮다. 둘째, 대인종목에 참가하고 있는 여자 운동선수가 개인종목, 단체종목, 투기 종목에 참가하고 있는 여자 운동선수에 비하여 사교활동에 대한 인지적 역할갈등이 높을 뿐만 아니라, 성공강박 및 정서에 대한 경험적 역할갈등 또한 높다. 세째, 운동경력에 따른 인지적 역할 갈등은 전체 요인에서 차이가 없는 반면, 성역할 정체 및 스포츠 개입에 대한 경험적 역할 갈등은 경력이 5년-8년인 여자 운동선수가 가장 높고, 운동수행에 대한 경험적 역할 갈등은 경력이 적을수록 높다. 네째, 여자 운등선수의 팀내 지위에 따른 인지적, 경험적 역할갈등은 차이가 없다. 다섯째, 여자 운동선수의 훈련량이 많을수록 운동수행, 사교활동, 그리고 전체 인지적 역할 갈등이 높을 뿐만 아니라 성역할 정체에 대한 경험적 역할갈등 또한 높다. 여섯째, 입상경험이 있는 운동선수가 입상경험이 없는 운동선수에 비하여 성역할기대에 대한 인지적 역할 갈등 수준이 높은 반면, 운동수행에 대한 경험적 역할갈등은 낮다.;It has been assumed that women's role conflict resulted from incompatibie sex role expectation between woman and athlete. Based on the assumption, the purpose of this investigation was to study role conflict among female athletes ocialized into the role of sport consumer. More specifically, the study examine effects of types of social acceptence of female participation in sport and, patterns of the participating sport, athletic career, status in team, traning duration, and the success experience in sport on role conflicts among female athletes. The subjects of this study were 209 female intercollegiate athletes from 25 sports, who enrolled Seoul Amateur Sport Federation in 1989. Data were collected during the 11th-2lth, 1990 academic year by a persenally administered questionnaire. The instrument was a 20-items inventory that assessed perceived and experienced reole conflict of the subjects in enacting their roles as female and female ahtlete. Approval to administer the inventory was obtained from coacthes and athletes. The instrument was based upon a model of role conflict developed by Grace(1972) and modifid by Anthrop and Allison(1983), with questions about role conflict modifild to deal with relating the role of female and female athlete. The areas of conflict included a general attitude of society toward females and athtetic participation; physical appearance and skills of the femal which may seem incompatible with athletic participation; incompatibility of expectations of parents, friends, and others regarding sex roles and athlete role; and stereotyped female nonphysical characteristics which may conflict with desirable traits cempetitive athlete. The 20-item inventory actually consisted of two parts, with the same 10 items used for both parts. The first part was designed to measure role conflict perception (RCP) and the socond was designed to measure role conflict experienee (RCE) (Getzels & Guba, 1955; Grace, 1972). The operational definition of perceived rote conflict was the role occupant's perception of conflicting expectations or orientations. The 10 role conflict items were therefore persented to the respondents as role problems which female athletes might encounter during the course of their participation. On the RCP part the athletes were asked to respond to eaeh item on a 5-point scale from "No probtem" (1) "A very great problem" (5), in terms of their perception that this was a role conflict problem. The operational definition of experienced role conflict was the extent to which the role occupant had personally experienced role incompatibilities in enacting the roles of female/female athlete. for the RCE part the 10 items of the RCP part were repeated but the subjects were asked to respond to each item on a 5-point scale ranging from "No problem" (1) to "A very great problem" (5)in terms of their actually having experienced this as a role conflict problem. To data analysis, statistics employed this study were t-test, one-way ANOVA. Based upon the result of this study, the following conclustion appear warranted. 1. Female athletes whe participate in socially accpetable sports perceived greater role conflict of social activity factor than those who participate in socially not acceptable sports, while less role conflict of athletic performance factor. 2. Female athletes who participate in dual sports compared as those who participated in individual, team and combat sports have a greater perceived role conflict of social activity, and experienced success stereotype and emotion. 3. Female athletes who have a 5 year-8 yearcareer experienced greater role conflict of the sex role identity and the sport commitment factor, and the shorter the career, the greater the role conflict of the performance factor, while there was no difference perceived role conflict. 4. In the case of status in team, there were no difference in both the perceived and the experienced role conflict. 5. The longer the traing duration, the greater perceived performance, social activity, and total role conflict, and the greats experienced sex role identity role conflit. 6. Female athletes who experienced winning perceived greater role confict of sax rote expectation factor, while lower role conflict of performance factor.
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