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一然의 讚詩 硏究

一然의 讚詩 硏究
Other Titles
Study on Il-Yon's CHAN Poems
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대학원 국어국문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The monk Il-Yon, (一然) the leading figure of the Zen Buddhist denomination temple or Gaji mountain (迦智山) in the mid-Koryo Dynasty, wrote 49 CHAN poems (讚詩) tasting the flabor of Zen (禪風) with the method of "achieving Zen through Poem", all of which are kept in his unorthodoxical history look of SAMKUKYUSA (三國遺事). I stated in the thesis that these 49 CHAN Poems (讚詩) reflect the essence of monk Il-Yon's faith "Seek Bodhi (enlightenment) above, enlighten the mass below" (上求菩提, 下化衆生)intended to realize socialization or popularization of Buddhism through praising the Buddha. I also set forth the correlation between his ardent patriotism and the spirit of Zen Buddhism in responding to the disintegration of traditional civilization and culture and the resulting heterogeneity of Mongolization toward the end of the Koryo Dynasty. I noted that SAMKUKYUSA, composed of nine chapters, contains two different world views. First, the look contains chapters on WANG LYEOK (王歷) and on KIYI (紀異) which reflect mythologies relating to founding fathers of the three Dynasties derived from the traditional faith system of Shamanism and Totemism which are the basis of traditional culture and thought. Second it also contains chapters from HEUNG BEOB (興法) to HYO SEON (孝善) which support universal order system of the essence of the Buddhist civilization or culture and the world view of popular Buddhism promoting faith for national defense. Thus, the following two conclusions played a key role as a clue to the study of the 49 CHAN poems (讚詩) in this thesis : (1) I summarized in the first half of SAMKUKYUSA the fact that Il-Yon's poetical approaches in chapters on HEUNG BEOB (興法) and on KIYI (紀異) show his will to unify Confucianism and Buddhism in understanding peotry. The "CHEON SA OK DAE" (天賜玉帶) in the CHAN Poem (讚詩) perfectly describe mysteries of the world view of the mythologies relating to founding fathers in the first chapter on KIYI (紀異). A also summaryed his approaches to put a CHAN poem (讚詩) in the place of preface suitable to the intention of his compiling SAMKUKYUSA, which connotes comprehensiveness in his will to unify the three different faith systems - Confucianism, Buddhism and Shamanismly discarding Confucian method of compiling history. Meanwhile, the clever monk skillfully arranged such poems as CHEOYONG-KA, (處容歌) MANGHAE-SA YONKI-SEOLHWA, (望海寺緣起說話) SEDTONGYO, (薯童謠) MIRUK-SA YONKI-SEOLHWA, (彌勒寺緣起說話) and so on as a revealing stage for Buddhism in poems such as MOJUKJIRANG-KA, (慕竹旨郞歌) HUNHWA-KA, (獻花歌) CHANKIPARANG-KA, (讚耆婆郞歌) ANMIN- KA, (安民歌) CHEOYONG-KA, (處容歌) and SEOTONG-YO (薯童謠) included in chapter two on KIYI (紀異), thus reflecting the courses to reveal his mission of the times and the tends toward the universal world view resulting from egalitarianism of Buddhism which demolished the barriers of traditional shamanism and totemism. (2) I noted that chapters on HEUNG BEOB (興法) to HYO SEON (孝善) are arranged to reflect the concreteness of literary functions of Il-Yon's poems, and the tales in the chapters are not meaningless fractions but are so skillfully arranged as to be suitable to the viewpoints, commentary and poems about the persons in tales and poems. Therefore, I concluded that the six poems-TUKAN-KA, (得眼歌) POONG-YO, (風謠) JAEMANGMAE-KA, (祭亡妹歌) TOSOL-KA, (兜率歌) WON-KA (怨歌) and WOOJEOK-KA (遇賊歌) all of which are composed of CHAN poems (讚詩) and HYANG-KA (鄕歌) and in which the Confucian ethic and the Buddhist ethic are mixed, show the essence of Il-Yon's thought. In t h e poem YANGJISASEOK (良志使錫) which in thought to connect the person examplifying the precept of Dana in the poem with Il-Yon, the Buddist ethic, which is not permitted in the the Five Cardinal Articles of Confucian Morality (五方倫理) is not recognized as a literary work incompatible with the Confucian ethic. In the poem of WOOJEOK-KA by YEONG-JAE (永才) the Buddhist ethic between teacher and desciple can be compared to that of Confucian ethic of the order of the older and the young, and the precept of Endurance of Disgrace in TOSOL-KA by WOL-MYONGSA (月明師) show WOL-MYONG'S truthfulness to the King KYONG-TUK (景德) of Shill a which is also camparable to the Confucian ethic of Truthfullness between friends. The ethic between man and woman shown as the precept of strining in WOL-MYONG'S JAEMANMAE-KA is transformed from the original image of brother-sister to become human love which is comparable to the Confucian ethic of the violable relation between husband and wife. The Buddhist ethic between ruler and subjective which is thought to be a motive in Zen connotes the Confucian ethic of justice between ruler and subjective, in Shin-Choong's (信忠) Poem, Won-Ka (怨歌). The relations in family members shown as the priept of perfect wisdom in Hee-Myong's (希明) TUKAN-KA (得眼歌) is expressed as the human love in the Confucian ethic of parentage between father and son, and the mixture of CHAN poems (讚詩) and Hyang-Ka (鄕歌) in the poem expresses varied national sentiments and tones. In the first chapter of the thesis, in my approaches to Il- Yon's CHAN poems (讚詩) as poetical works of Zen Buddhism I based my discourse on the fact that the characteristics of the mixture of tales and CHAN poems (讚詩) in the latter part of SAMKUKYUSA show the world view of the Buddhist ethic of Six Directions, (六方倫理) the five cardinal Articles of Confucian ethic, and the ideal of saving the nation and the people, which embraces the originating sources of traditional civilization, culture and thoughts in the first part, and the universiality of creation. In the second chapter of the thesis, I summarized the history and cultural backgrounds of Il-Yon's times both at home and abroad, and noted how he expressed in his CHAN poem (讚詩) the agonies and comflicts of the mass in his turbulent times. In the third chapter I tried to compare the styles of Il- Yon's Zen with these of Chinese Zen, and, in connection with the peotical style of the Koryo Dynasty which are thought to be in herited from the Chinese Dynasty of Nam-Song, (南宋) discoursed the method of "versifying prose" in the poems of Nam-Song Dynasty and these of "achieving Zen through Poems“ in Il-Yong's Poems. In the fourth chapter, I discoursed the socialization or popularization of Buddhims suitable to the faith of the mass in my discourse on the styles of Il-Yon's poems of Zen resulting from his religious ritualization of his SAMBO Buddha (三寶信仰) In the five chapter, I dealt with the organic correlation between tales and CHAN poems (讚詩) and stated that Il-Yon in his hope for prenenting misfortunes as the embodiment of the faith of the merciful Buddha and in his objective understanding of history be maintained his objective understanding of history be maintained his aspiration for realizing the Buddhist land of eternal bliss as the faith of Miruk Buddha (彌勒信仰) given this, I stated that Il-Yon's position in historical and wroldly sense does not consist in negative worldly participation with frustrations, sorrows and critical attitudes, but in his CHAN poems (讚詩) hoping for returning to productive with reconciliation and acceptance. Therefore, I thought it was necessary to analize again Il-Yon's retrospective judgment on history, and judging from from the whole contents of SAMKUKYUSA, his discourses on the poems of Zen are not a were tool to praise the Buddhism when the poems are, appreciated in connection with the tales be compiled in the look. In the sixth chapter, I tried to establish a meaningful connection between Il-You and the peots Lee In-Ro (李仁老) who emphasized on style and Lee Kyu-Bo (李奎報) who emphasized on contents, in poetical history. In this analysis, I found that Il-Yon was interested in the popularization of the teaching of Zen Buddhism and access to the mass in evangelism, thus succeeded in inserting his CHAN poems (讚詩) without rigidity and obscurity into the tales, which turned out to be masterful.;이 論文은 고려조 禪師 普覺國師 一然(1206∼1289)이 三國遺事에 남긴 讚詩 49편에서 摸索되고 있는 禪詩美學樣相을 硏究論議로 하였다. 禪과 詩의 合一된 境界는 관습적 기존 言語를 否定함에 있으면서도 그 言語를 表現媒體로 受容해야 하는 逆說이 根據된 바, 일연의 讚詩 領域에서도 이같은 人間性情發露가 可能함을 論議했다. 이 作品들은 佛讚을 빌은 '上求菩提 下化衆生'을 중심한 佛敎社 會化가 中核이면서 또한 儒佛統合意志, 禪敎圖融을 反映하고 있는 -然恩想과 信仰의 총체이기도 했다. Ⅰ章에서는 三國遺事 構造에 드러나고 있는 샤먼문화 環境과 佛敎文化의 융화에 따른 讚詩와 禪詩 接近의 可能性을 살펴 보았다. 一然은 興法以後에서 孝善편목에 이르는 佛敎와 관련된 設話에 讚詩를 붙이고 있음을 論議했다. Ⅱ章에서는 一然의 生涯와 三國遺事가 産出된 당대의 社會文化背景을 살펴보면서 一然이 지녔던 史觀과 禪宗脈絡과의 連繫性에 따라 三國遺事의 撰述動機를 確認하고자 했다. Ⅲ章에서는 迦智山 禪風을 주도했던 一然의 禪宗계보를 禪美學觀點에서 論議하였다. 韓國 禪文學의 중세적 지성의 좌표였던 지눌禪을 어떤 樣相으로 수용하고 있는가를 살피기 위한 論據로서 修禪社 二視讀慧諶과 중국의 慧能과 王維와의 관계에서 본 禪과 詩의 결부를 살폈다. 그 결과 一然은 以詩入禪한 詩人임을 밝혔다. Ⅳ章에서는 一然이 수용하고 있는 三脅信仰 宗敎儀禮化에 따른 佛敎社會化의 大衆性이 바탕된 一然의 詩世界를 검토해 보았다. 이것은 佛, 法, 僧, 三寶信仰의 禮讚으로 揷入된 讀詩의 특성들임을 論議했다. Ⅴ章에서는 三國遺事說話와 讚詩의 有機性問題를 論議했다. 一然은 眞諦 俗諦의 一元論的 華嚴世界觀을 三國遺事에다 밝히고자 했으며 知訥 禪脈의 社會革新意志를 崇高한 佛家僧의 沙門倫理로 융화시키고 있음을 살폈다. 따라서 그의 抒情的 自我形象의 讚詩世界는 現世的 觀音信仰 要諦가 확연했고, 敍事的 構造로 설정된 說話世界의 讚詩는 末法時代的연 彌勒 信仰的 要索로 確認했다. 따라서 이 두 요소의 信仰推移가 병합되고 있는 讚詩의 양면성을 추론해 보았다. Ⅳ章에서는 讚詩가 高麗詩壇에 끼친 성과를 論議했다. 高麗詩壇의 두 주류를 形成했던 用事論과 新意論의 조화에 있어 一然은 詩의 기교보다는 內容의 新意를 接近하므로써 讚詩文學을 完成했다. 三國遺事의 讚詩들은 一然이 平易한 詩語로씨 '平常心退道'라는 禪宗 敎意를 가르치려는 意圖에서 産出된 것임을 論議目的으로 했다.
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