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한말 신민회에 관한 연구
- 한말 신민회에 관한 연구
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- 대학원 사학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 新民會는 乙巳條約이후의 國權回復運動期(1905 ~ 1910年)에 있어서, 民族의 自主獨立을 最終的 目標로 삼고 당면 課題로서 穩健·强硬의 愛國啓蒙運動을 展開한 秘密結社이다.
本稿는 愛國啓蒙運動의 中核的 存在로서, 그 先導的 役割을 담당했던 新民會의 實像을 究明하고 나아가서는 愛國啓蒙運動의 성격을 보다 實證的으로 浮刻시켜 보고자 試圖한 것이다.
本稿는 序論에 이어 제Ⅱ장에서는 신민회 成立의 背景과 經緯, 그리고 新民會의 組織狀況을 論証하였다. 新民會는 乙巳條約을 契機로 日帝의 本格的인 植民地化 作業에 對應하여 民族的 및 民權的 性格이 强한 開明人士들이 民族的 抵抗을 위하여 結集되어졌던 것이며, 그들은 大體로 1890年代 後半期의 獨立協會 및 萬民共同會의 自主自强民權運動을, 切迫한 狀況과도 關聯하여 批判的으로 繼承한, 歐美近代思潮를 일찍이 受容한 西北地方의 知識層이었다. 따라서 新民會는 透徹한 現狀認識과 더불어 치밀한 組織을 갖고 海外同胞와도 一定한 連關을 맺으면서 그 “穩健·强硬運動”을 推進하였던 것이다.
제Ⅲ장에서는 新民會가 民族의 自主獨立을 위한 當面課題로서 전개한 運動을 그 樣態에 따라, 敎育·言論運動 및 民族經濟自立運動을 “穩健 運動”으로 地下鬪爭으로 展開했던 國權回復運動을 “强硬 運動”으로 나누어 考察하였다.
新民會의 敎育運動은 “敎育救國思想”의 理念下에 民族的 自主意識의 啓發과 內修外學에 의한 民族實力養成을 指標로 大成學校, 五山學校등 이른바 民族系 私學을 模範的으로 運營하였으며, 이러한 新民會의 敎育運動은 당시 全國에서 燎原의 불길처럼 일어났던 敎育救國運動을 건전한 방향으로 이끄는데 있어서 일정한 역할을 遂行하였던 것이다.
敎育運動과 倂行하였던 言論運動은 「大韓每日申報」,「少年」잡지 등을 통하여 이루어 졌으며, 그들이 志向하는 바 民族의 自主獨立을 위하여 旧來의 因習 打破와 近代歐美思想의 普及 및 民族的 自存意識의 晶導에 힘을 기울여 自己時代의 使命을 감당하려고 하였다.
또한 日帝의 經濟的 侵略의 加重과 더불어 民族의 經濟的인 破綻를 直視한 그들은 “經濟復興이 곧 救國”이라는 標語아래 儒敎的 傳統社會에서의 商工業 賤視觀의 불식과, 韓國商人의 商權保護運動을 전개하는 한편 現代的 株式會社인 “馬山洞磁器會社”를 경영하여 당시 社會에 標本的인 民族企業으로 育成시켜 民族經濟自立의 可能性을 보여주기도 하였던 것이다.
이상의 穩健한 운동과 함께 新民會는 從耒 愛國啓蒙 團體에서는 찾아 볼 수 없던 强硬한 地下國權回復運動으로 西間島의 獨立運動 基地 確保를 그 重要事業으로 展開하였으며, 신민회 關係 個人 人士들에 의해서 國權回復運動의 一環으로서 日帝 侵略者와 親日 賣國分子를 處斷하는 등으로 民族的 抵抗을 誇示하기도 하였던 것이다. 이러한 신민회의 强硬한 救國運動은 愛國啓蒙路線을 다만 改良的인 文化啓蒙路線으로 보아온 從耒의 見解에 一定한 修正을 加하게 하는 것이었다.
제Ⅳ장에서는 日帝가 “韓國强占” 後 國內의 民族主義 勢力을 壓殺하고 그들의 支配基盤을 鞏固히 構築하기 위하여 造作했던 一連의 事件속에서 新民會를 主要 탄압 對象으로 策定했던 “寺內總督暗殺陰謀事件”에 초점을 맞추어 살펴 보았다. 이 事件은 신민회가 日帝에 의한彈壓의 重要한 標的이 되었다는 점에서 오해려 國權回復運動期의 신민회 운동을 再認識하게 하는 事件이기도 하였다. 이 事件을 통하여 新民會는 그 組織이 드러나고, 그 中心人物이 海外로 망명 또는 투옥되었으므로 사실상 新民會 運動은 挫折을 겪지 않을 수 없었던 것이다.
그러나 이러한 挫折속에서 新民會는 그들이 전개했던 强硬한 救國運動과도 관련하여 國權回復운동을 海外에서의 독립운동으로 轉換시켜 나아가는데 있어서 重要한 役割을 擔當하게 되는 것이다.
新民會 運動은 비록 短期的으로는 失敗하였다. 그러나 그 民族主義運動은 日帝下의 1910年代 民族獨立運動의 底力이 되었으며, 3·1 獨立運動의 主體的 力量을 形成하는데 있어서도 크게 寄與하게 되는 것이었다.;Sin-Mio Hoie(The New People's Society 신민회) was a patriotic underground orangization which had held legitimate and illegitimate campaigns for enlightenment to regain Independence of the contry as its final target. They had had activities during the periode of the struggle for the Regaining of National Rights(1905-1910). The struggle began with the contraction of the Eulsa treaty in 1905(을사조약) Sin-Min Haie was one of the important leading groups during the period.
In the thesis, the writer will try to make clear what the real aspect of Sin-Min Haie was, furthermore to grasp the clear idea of what character the patriotic campaign for enlightment had.
In chapter II following Introduction, the background for, the details of and the status of the organization of Sin-Min Haie was studied systematically. Taking the opportunity of the contraction of the Evlsa treaty in 1905 when Japan started colonizing out contry on a full scale, the intellectuals who had a strong consciousness of the nationality and national rights organized Sin-Mon haie against Japan's colonization of our country. Most of the intellectuals who accepted modern Western thinking rapidely came form the NorthWest province. And they were the successors who accepted the idea of the Independent Society(독립협회) and People's Altogether Society(만민공동회) with a critical mind during the latter part of the 1890s. They carried out their task with a critical attitute regarding the critical situaltion of the country. Communicating with the compatriots abroad regularly, they performed the movements both legitimate and illegitimate ways according to their careful plan which was developed in accordance with the situation of the country.
In chapter III, the various movements they carried out are studied in two aspects: one is a legitimate comapign for enlightment, including movemets for education and newspapers and the selfsupporting of a national economy, and the other which was performed underground is the illegitimate one for the Regaining of National Rights. The compaign for enlightment was performed under the idea of ""The Salvation of the Country Through Education."" The purpose ofthe compaign is to cultivate the people's national spirit of independence and to bring up the intellectual power of the people by accepting Western things while developing Korean things as well. To reach the goal they operated such private scholls as the Taisong Junior High School(대성학교) and Ohsan Junior High School(오산학교) under the spirit of nationalism. And they played a leading role in various compaigns for the salvation of the contry through education blazing up through the whole country at that time. In parallel with the campaign for education the press campaign was performed through the Korean Daily News(「대한매일신보」) and the Young(「소년」), a Jouranl, by the members of that society. They especially emphasized the importance of doinig away with convertionalities of perishing Yi dynasty, of popularizing modern Western thinking and of inspiring the people's national spirit of independence with historical awareness. With the rampant Japaness economic invasion, they came to be acutely conscious of the national economy which was near bakrupcy So they tried to break down the tendency ofthe people's contempt for commerce and industry as a job which was based on the Confucian convention under the slogan ""the Economic Construction is the Salvation of the Country."" On the other hand, they evolved the campaigns to protect the commercial rights of the Korean merchants. And they brought up Masandong Porcelain Co., Ltd.(마산동 자기회사), which was a joint stock company in a modern sense to be the model company of the country showing the possibility of national economic independence. Finishing the study on the legitimate campaign, we will examine the illegitimate movement for the Regaining of National Rights. At first they worked for Independence illegitimately in Suegando(서간도), and they gradually expanded their acting area. Taking an example of their acivities, some among the personnel belonging to Sin-Mio Haie assassinated Japanese Government personnel and pro-Japanese traitors of our country. Such evidence as the illigitimate movement of that society makes the writer amend the general opinion which has regarded the patriotic enlightment movements of Sin-Min Hoie only within the viewpoint of a cultural enlightment movement.
In chapter IV focus is on the plot for the assassination of the Governor-general Terauchi(시내). After the Japanese occupation of our country, Japanese Government had fabricated a series of plots to make the pretence of their governing the country and breaking down the activities of nationalists plausible. The Terauchi assassination plot was one of the Japanese fabricated plots to breakdown the New People's Society, which was one of the main targets to be suppressed by Japan. This plot forced neappraisal is the activities of Sin-Min Hoie. Because of the plot its organization revealed, the fact that some of the leading persons sought refuge in a foreign country and the others were prisoned, and as a result the activities performed by Sin-Min Hoie were frustrated. Despite the frustration of the movements, they played an important role in convertiong the activities of the nationalists abroad into those for Independence. Theouhg the activities of Sin-Min Hoie lasted for such a short period, they made a great contribution to the movements for Independence which occured in 1910 and furthermore provided for the potentialities for Samil Independence Movement.
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