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조선 세조조의 인쇄문화에 대하여

조선 세조조의 인쇄문화에 대하여
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교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Many theses have already been made by a number of scholars concerning both the printing of books and the art of printing during the age of King Sejo. However, those are concerned in such fields as the study on a detailed printing type, a confirmatior, a consideration of the comprehensive art of printings or a collection of the chronological cases, and a study on the process of printings in view of the linguistic history. And, we know very little about any thesis systematized synthetically in view of the history of the culture of printing. Therefore, in this thesis, emphasis should be put upon several aspects, such as, in the viewpoint of the history of the culture of printing, a consideration of the historical background of the development of the culture of printing, and dividing into the culture of Type printing and that of Block printing, how it has progressed and what characteristic and trait it had, and how significant it was in the history of culture. A fact about the historical background oromoting the development of the culture of printing during the age of King Sejo, is that King Taejong, for the first time, set up a printery in order to carry out his policy of Confucianism and Scholasticism, casting the printing type Gemi-ja, and that King Sejong and King Munjong later kept on casting the printing types, Gyeongja-ja, Gabin-ja, Byeongjin-ja, and Gyeong-o-ja, revising or anew. Meanwhile, they contributad to the cultural development, performing the Chosen Project, printing and publishing books, Simultaneously Prince Sejo took part in printing and performing the chosen project both directly and indirectly, That is, he wrote the manuscript for the type Gabin-ja in 1434, the 16th year of King Sejong, he rewrote the manuscript for casting in 1436, the 18th year of King Sejong, and he got experienced in publishing the most difficult books, Seogbosangjeol and Dongkug-jeong-woon. His successful career in printing after he come to the throne was wholly due to his experience acquired during his vears of prince. In the field of the culture of printing, he cast lots of type Eulhal-ja to fulfil the policy of Scolasticism, and all the books of Gyeongsajajib he printed and published, promoting the general learnings to the point. He also cast types of Korean Alphabet Hangeul and printed lots of the translated books for the public. This kept the Korean Alphabet alive steadily. Also, it cannot be skipped over that the printing types of Korean-Chinese, being used until the Japanese Invasion, contributed to the development of learning, from the cultural historical view point. The printing type Jeongchuk-ja cast in 1457, the 3rd year of King Sejo was made to pray for the repose of the soul of the deceased crown prince Deokjong, and to publish such books as the Chinese O-ga-hae, and the Korean Sam-ga-hae from the Geumgang-Gyeong. The printed books of the above are very rare and are highly appreciated as a cultural inheritance. It was treated that the printing type Muin-ja cast in 1458, the 4th year of King Sejo was made for printing the book Gyosik-chubo-beobjeongmun by King Sejong himself and Yeokhag-Gemong-Yohae, yet those were such limited publications that we can appreciate highly now. It is characteristic trat Eulyu-ja made in l465, the 11th year of king Sejo was originally cast for printing Won-kag-Gyeong, a Buddhistic book and was used together with the Korean Alphabet, and was used for printing other books in addition to the Buddhistic books, from the cultural historical view point. In the block-printing, 50 copies of the large Daejang-Kyeong were printed and issued for many Buddhist Temples in the famous mountains domestic and overseas, which was aimed for the first time to perform the policy of Buddhism. The classic Wolin-Seokbo issued in 1459, the 5th year of King Sejo, is remarkable for its enhancing the policy of Buddhism, driving the confucian retainers away. This was written in Korean explaining the content of Buddhism, and aimed to spread it to the general public. On the other hand, this was the beginning of our prose style in which it was written in Korean scorned at as Eon-mun at that time. So lt should be highly appreciated that this kept the Korean Alphabet Hangeul alive, and it has been valuable both from the viewpoint of the Korean literary history and from that of the Korean linguistlc history. In 1461, the 7th year of King Sejong, an institute for publishing the Buddhist books was set up, and a lot of the Buddhist books were issued on a large scale, which meant the fulfilment of Sojo's Buddhistic policy as a national system. In its books, the kinds of Korean-translated books are various, and they contributed to keeping the Korean language alive as well as spreading the Buddhism to the public. In the Chinese edition, it was also favorable to the study of Buddhism that the rare books of Goryo Dynasty and those from China were issued. And it was considered that in the art of printing, the cutting was elaborate, ink was clear, and type was heavy and bold. Concluding to above from the viewpoint of the history of culture: First; The printing type Eulhai-ja cast directly after King Sejo's accession to the throne, in the lst year of his, was aimed to provide the general learning with printed materials, succeeding the current policy of Buddhism, and in fact, was used for such purpose until the Japanese Invasion, but printing types and printing blocks made after then were chiefly used for issuing the Buddhist books only and resulting in developing the culture of the Buddhism. Second; It should be a monumental work that the Korean edltions of the Buddhist books were extensively issued and the popularization of the Buddhism was realized in the Korean Buddhist history, and the existence and the development of the Korean language were assisted by them. Third; The type printing and the block printing during the years of King Sejo deserve to be called ""Essence of the culture of pointing During the Former Part of Yi Dynasty,"" from the view point of Quality and Ouantity alike.;世祖朝의 書籍印刷 및 印刷術에 關하여는 여러 先學에 의해 적잖은 論文이 진작 發表된 바 있으나, 그 論文은 細部的인 活字硏究 및 考證을 비롯하여 印刷術에 對한 槪略的 考察 내지 編年史的 事例集成이거나, 國語學史的인 測面에서 印書經緯를 硏究한 것 들이며 印刷文化史的 觀點에서 綜合的으로 體系化한 論文운 별로 없는 것으로 알고 있다. 그러므로 이 論文에서는 印刷文化史的 관점에 입각하여 印刷文化 發達의 史的 背景을 먼저 考察한 다음, 活字印刷 文化와 木板印刷文化로 나누어 그것이 어떻게 發達되었고, 어떠한 性格파 特徵을 지녔으며, 나아가 文化史的으로는 어떠한 意義가 있는가를 考察하는데 力點을 두었다. 世祖朝의 印刷文化를 發達하게 한 史的 背景의 考察에 있어서는 太宗이 崇儒右文政策의 실현을 위해 鑄字所를 始置하여 發未字를 鑄造하였고, 世宗 그리고 文宗이 政策을 이어받아 庚子字, 甲寅字, 丙辰字, 庚午字를 잇달아 改鑄 또는 新鑄하는 한편 撰譯事業을 推進 시켜 많은 書籍을 印出·普及하여 文化發展에 크게 寄與하였는데, 兩宗朝에 있어서 바로 世祖가 大君으로서 그 印刷 및 撰譯事業에 直接 또는 間接으로 參與하였다. ? 世宗 16年(1434)에 甲寅字를 鑄造할 때 그 不足 字本 썼고, 世宗 18年(1436)에 丙辰字의 字本을 精書하여 鑄造하게 하였으며, 至難했던 譯譜詳節, 東國正韻 等의 撰譯刊行에 참여하여 많은 經驗을 쌓았다. 이와같이 漑邱時節부터 얻은 산 經驗이 그로 하여금 ?位 後 先代의 印刷文化를 細述하여 한 次元 높은 段階로 發達시켰다고 밝혀 놓았다. 活字印刷 文化의 考察에 있어서는 卽位하자 바로 元年 (1455)에 崇文l政策을 구현하기 위해 乙亥字를 多量 新鑄해서 經史子集 全分野에 걸친 書籍을 印出·普及하여 學問을 고루 振興시켰고, 한글活字를 만들어 國譯書를 印出하여 學問을 一般大衆에로 파고 들게 함과 同時에 한글의 命脈을 유지하게 한 手段이 되었으며, 또한 그 國漢活字가 壬括 前까지 오래 使用되면서 學問發展에 寄與했음이 文化史的으로 크게 注目되는 점이라 論及하였다. 世祖 3年(1457)의 丁丑字는 亡世子인 德宗의 冥福 祈願次 金剛經의 漢文五家解와 國譯三家解의 正文을 印出하기 위한 目的으로 鑄成한 것이 特徵이며, 그 印本이 매우 稀貴하여, 文化遺産的인 面에서 所重하게 評價된다고 言及하였 다. 世祖 4年(1458)의 戊寅字는 世宗所製라고 일컫는 交食推步法正文과 世祖 自身의 御製라고 일컫는 易學啓蒙要解의 正文과 細小字를 印出하기 위해 鑄成한 것이 特徵이며, 이것 역시 限定된 書籍의 印出을 위한 短命의 活字이기 때문에 그 印本이 稀貴하여 文化遺産的인 面에서 所重하게 評價된다고 하였다. 世祖 11年(1465)의 乙酉字는 본시 佛書인 圓寬經을 印出하기 위해 鑄成한 것이나, 한글活字를 竝用하였고, 또한 佛書 以外의 書籍까지 印出하는데 使用되었음이 文化史的으로 注目되는 特徵이라 하겠다. 木板印刷의 考察에 있어서는 世祖 4年(1458)에 巨帙의 大藏經을 50벌 印出하여 도처의 名山에 安藏하는 한편 國內外에 그 印本을 널리 普及시켰는데, 이는 崇佛政策 구현을 위한 그의 意圖的인 첫 事業인 점에서 注目하게 한다. 이 巨帙의 藏經印出로 對內的으로는 朝鮮의 佛敎文化 發展에로 指向하게 하는 土台가 構築되고, 對外的으로는 日本 및 琉球 等에 贈與함으로써 그곳의 佛敎文化 發達을 促進토록 하였을 뿐만 아니라 이를 底本으로 刊行하여 再雕大藏經의 優秀한 本文을 온 世界에 傳播하게 한 점에서 文化史的힘 意義가 크다고 論及하였다. 世祖 5年(1459) 刊行의 月印釋譜는 儒臣들의 諫言을 물리치고 崇佛政策을 二段階로 끌어 올려 놓은 것인 점에서 注目하게 한다. 이 月印釋譜는 釋尊의 敎理를 담은 礎典을 正音으로 알기 쉽게써서 一般大衆에게 佛敎를 널리 펴고자 한데 그 目的이 있었지만 한편 이것이 當時 諺文이라 賤視했던 正音으로 쓴 우리 나라 散文 文學의 嚆矢이며, 한글의 命脈을 이어 준 점에서 國文學史 및 國語學史의 側面에서 그 價値가 높이 評價되며, 印刷文化史的인 側面에서 板刻術을 볼 때도 사뭇 優雅精巧하여 所重하게 評價된다고 論及하였다. 世祖 7年(1461)에 刊經都監을 設置하고, 대대적으로 佛典을 刊行하였음은 世祖의 護佛政策이 國家的 事業으로 制度化 되어 확대되었음을 意味하는 点에서 注目하게 한다. 그 刊行佛典에는 國譯本의 種類가 多樣하여 大衆에의 佛敎弘普는 물론 正音文學의 發展과 한글의 命脈을 連綿토록 하는데 한 次元 높은 段階의 寄與를 한 점이 一大特徵이며, 漠文本에 있어서 當時 宇傳되었던 高麗의 續藏과 中國에서 購得해 온 것을 重點的으로 刊行해 내므로써 佛敎硏究에 이바지 하였음도 대견하게 評價되는 業績이라고 言及하였다. 또한 그 印刷術은 官板인 까닭에 刀刻이 精巧하고 墨光이 鮮明하며, 字體가 肉重하고 늠름한 것이 그 特徵이라 考察하였다. 위의 要約을 文化史的 觀点에서 연歸結지으면 첫째, 世祖가 卽位하자 元年에 鑄造한 乙亥字는 先代의 崇文政策을 細述하여 學問全般에 걸쳐 印書·普及하기 위함이었고, 또 實際問題로서 壬括 前까지 그런 目的으로 使用되었으나, 그 以後에 鑄成된 活字와 木板에 의한 印刷는 主로 佛書에 치중하여 佛敎文化를 크게 發展시켰음이 그 特徵이다. 둘째, 佛書의 國譯事業을 대대적 벌려 印刷하여 佛敎의 大衆化를 實現시켰음은 韓國佛敎史에 있어서 劃期的인 業績이며, 나아가서는 正音의 命脈 유지와 正音의 散文學 發達에 寄與한 공헌은 韓國文化史韓에 있어서 빛나는 金子塔이 될 것이다. 셋째, 世祖朝의 活字印刷 및 木板印刷는 質的언 面에서나 量的인 面에서나 朝鮮前期 印刷文化의 精髓라 일컬어 마땅하다.
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