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William Moirris의 pattern樣式에 關한 硏究

William Moirris의 pattern樣式에 關한 硏究
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Study on the pattern's style of William Moirris : Centering on wallpaper and chintz
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대학원 응용미술과자수전공
William Moirrispattern양식벽지chintz
이화여자대학교 대학원
現代는 모든 生活이 機械化 乃至 機能化 되면서 디자인의 領域에도 形態가 漸次, 單純 抽象 劃一化되어 이에 對한 反動으로서 自然의 形態로 돌아가야 한다는 輿論이 高潮되고 있는 것은 人間本然의 自然에로의 復歸인 것이다. 이런 狀況에서 自然의 形態를 造形化하여 人間性의 復活을 强調함으로서 現代 디자인 史에 크게 貢獻한 윌리암·모리스를 工藝家이며 패턴 디자이너로서 再照明하는 것은 디자이너의 立場과 敎育者의 立場에서 意義가 있다고 生覺된다. 그의 패턴의 根源을 把握하기 爲해서는 思想과 樣式의 흐름을 通해서 알 수 있다고 생각되어 이러한 樣式의 根據를 藝術創作 主體의 精神的 特性에 두어, 作家와 作品世界를 通해 考察해 보고자한다. 모리스는 그 自身의 表現처럼 地球와 그 위에 存在하는 生命 즉 自然에 對한 깊은 사랑과 人類 過去史에 對해 情熱을 지닌 사람이었다. 즉 思索, 讀書旅行을 通한 體驗이 藝術分野의 社會的 矛盾을 指摘한 John Ruskin을 通해 確固한 思想으로서 그의 作品世界에 影響을 끼쳤다고 본다. 自然主義者로서 그의 패턴 디자인에서 自然을 主題로 하였고 또한 自然의 有機體로서의 成長感을 基本으로 하였다. 그리고 고딕건축에 對한 愛着은 讀書, 特히 Ruskin,의 著書인 The Stones of Venice와 旅行을 通해 그의 理想인 藝術의 참모습을 中世에서 찾아 이를 實踐하였고 패턴디자인에 있어서는 全面을 가득 메운 패턴의 構造的인 面을 强調하였다. 그리하여 그의 패턴은 自然主義에서 形式主義로 다시 自然主義와의 統一을 試圖하는 5段階로 分類되며 이러한 多樣한 變化는 自然成長的인 形態를 사랑하면서도 또 한편으로는 歷史的인 織物의 形式主義的인 motif를 좋아함을 反映한 것이다. 이 같이 그의 패턴이 生命力을 잃지 않고 獨自的인 Style을 이룬 것은 歷史主義에서 脫皮치는 못하였어도 單純한 模倣에 빠짐없는 不斷한 努力의 結果로서 美와 想像力과 秩序의 3가지 要素가 不可思議한 속에서 이루어 졌기 때문이라고 生覺된다.;It is a human natural return to nature that the styles in the territory of design also have been becoming simple, abstract and uniform step by step and, as a reaction of these, public opinion has been emphasizing for returning to the style of nature according to the every life has become mechanical and functional. I think it is very meaningful from a position of designer and educationist, to lighten William Morrie again as a technologist and pattern-designer, who contributed greatly to the history of modern design world by emphasizing of revival of human nature with it's modeling of the styles of nature in this situation. I think it can be known through the idea and the runs of style to seize the origin of his pattern, therefore, I am going to examine these runs putting the base of styles as a spiritual character of the subject of the art crea.tivework through the artist and the world of the work. William Morris, as his own expression, was a person who is "a person of deep affection on the earth and the life exists on it, that it, on this nature, and also of deep passion on the human past events." I think, that is, his experiences through thinking, reading books and travels influenced upon his work world with firm idea through John Ruskin who indicated of the social conflict of the art field. As he is a naturalist, he did his pattern design based on nature and also did it from the foundation of the growing sensitivity as organism of nature, and the affection on Gothic architecture, through his reading books especially the Book tittled 'The stones of Venice' written by Ruskin and his travels, he found his ideal, the artistic real figure in the middle ages, and he practised it. Of the pattern design, he emphasized the sturctural surface of pattern where filled up the whole surface. Upon this, his pattern divided into 5 stages which attempts the unity of formalism and naturalism again from naturalism to formalism, and the intricate change like this reflected to love of styles of growing of nature, and, on the other hand, it reflected to love of formaiistic motif of historical textiles. I think that the reason why his pattern's life-power is not lost like this and the individual styles accomplished, is that, even though, he didn't withdraw it from historism, but he tried his best constantly not to fall into the simple imitation all the time; and it is because that the 3 elements, beauty, power of imagination and order have been accomplished in wonders.
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