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외국인 노동자의 문화적응 스트레스에 관한 연구

외국인 노동자의 문화적응 스트레스에 관한 연구
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사회복지대학원 사회복지학과
이화여자대학교 사회복지대학원
It is an important social problem for foreign workers to adapt themselves to our society well when it is considered that foreign workers' inflow is an "unavoidable trend of globalization". This study was conducted to examine the effect of social capital, which is one of main concepts applied to the studies on social and psychological adaption of foreign workers, on acculturative stress of foreign workers. The summary of the study result follows next. The first, the level of acculturative stress of foreign workers showed below the average(3) as 2.33 out of 5, and the most high figures among subcategories were homesick 2.94 and cultural shock 2.72. This shows psychological conditions in which nostalgia for family is appeared in the process of adapting to strange circumstances. That is, it is found that they missed their family and were under psychological pressure about their children and family after the migration. The second, acculturative stress according to foreign worker's educational level among statistically meaningful results showed that the group of high school graduates experienced the less cultural adaption stress than the group of college graduates. When it comes to acculturative stress according to staying period, the subcategories of stress - homesick, fear, perceived discrimination, perceived hatred - showed meaningful difference. But, the overall acculturative stress didn't show meaningful difference. In case of acculturative stress according to income, the more income showed the less cultural adaption stress. The subcategories of cultural adaption stress - homesick, perceived discrimination and etc. - showed big difference. In case of stress difference according to nationality, from the result of the research conducted on 4 countries which account for 70% of respondents, Nigeria showed the lowest acculturative stress and Bangladesh showed the highest acculturative stress. The third, acculturative stress according to the information of working places, daily life and employment related to working in Korea before the migration showed meaningful difference in every subcategory. That is, foreign workers showed the less acculturative stress according to the difference of the information about working in Korea before the migration. In case of acculturative stress related to social connection net, according to the existence of groups to which joining periodically, their native friends to whom they can talk freely and Korean friends as close as their native friends, the higher social connection net showed the less acculturative stress and the foreign workers who have Korean friends as close as their natives showed the lowest stress of 2.27. The existence of native friends to whom they can talk freely among social connection net showed meaningful difference statistically. It was examined that they got more support from natives and native groups than Koreans or Korean groups to adapt to Korean society. Suggestions according to the result follow next. The first, foreign workers use social connection net the most actively among native co-workers to adapt to Korean society, so the service, which supports social activity participation of foreign workers and social connection net, is required. And, there is need to understand cultures of each country and to help the bilateral adaption through programs and activities to which foreign and Korean workers can join together. It is also required to examine concrete plans on native support group operation and the support for the alleviation of cultural adaption stress of foreign workers. It might isolate them from Korean society as an exclusive connection net, but it also can play an important role in presenting essential information and resource for them to live in Korean society. The second, currently, small religious groups and non-profit civil organizations are presenting services for foreign workers and these civil organizations have been playing an great role in securing human rights of foreign workers and helping their adaption. But, as foreign workers are admitted as legal workers according to the foreign work-permit system, supporting organizations operated by the government finance seem to be required. Supporting organizations have to support civil groups and reflect their opinions to the policy by cooperating with them and have to present effective services through the unification of service programs and information. The third, the subcategories of cultural adaption stress according to staying period - homesick, fear, perceived discrimination, perceive hatred - showed meaningful result, so immediate intervention and continuous program for psychological stability in the first stage of migration are required. The assesment and intervention for psychological troubles in the first stage of migration would help psychological and physical health of foreign workers and confirm the trust about Korean society. The fourth, various cultural adaption programs should be presented, considering individual background. That over 31 age groups experience the higher cultural adaption stress than under 31 age groups shows the difference of adaption according to ages. Therefore, it is needed to use community resource which is easily accessible through case management program, using community centers and counseling center opening to approach in many ways to the difficulties of cultural adaption according to individual background.
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