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연주자의 관점으로 본 Goethe의 시 "Kennst du das Land" 에 의한 Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, Wolf의 가곡 비교 연구

연주자의 관점으로 본 Goethe의 시 "Kennst du das Land" 에 의한 Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, Wolf의 가곡 비교 연구
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 논문은 괴테(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832)의 소설 「빌헬름 마이스터의 수업시대(Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre)」에 나오는 미뇽(Mignon)의 노래 "그 나라를 아시나요(Kennst du das Land)"에 의해 작곡된 베토벤(Ludwig van Beethoven, 1770-1827), 슈베르트(Franz Schubert, 1797-1828), 슈만(Robert Schumann, 1810-1856), 리스트(Franz Liszt, 1811-1886), 볼프(Hugo Wolf, 1860-1903)의 가곡을 연주자의 관점으로 연구한 논문이다. 당대를 대표하는 작곡가 베토벤, 슈베르트, 슈만, 리스트, 볼프의 작품을 시어의 음악적 재창조 방법을 중심으로 비교 연구함으로써 시대별, 작곡가별 특징에 따른 다양한 감정표현의 올바른 이해, 해석, 연주를 도모하고자 한다. 본 논문은 서론, 이론적 배경, 작품 분석, 결론으로 구성된다. 제 I장 서론에서는 본 연구의 의의와 목적, 연구 방법을 밝혔으며, 각 작곡가들의 작품분석에 앞서 제 II장 이론적 배경에서 괴테의 생애와 문학적 변화를 고찰함으로써 괴테시와 가곡과의 관계를 연구하였다. 또한 소설「빌헬름 마이스터의 수업시대」의 작품 배경과 줄거리, 미뇽의 성격과 미뇽의 노래 "Kennst du das Land"에 대한 고찰을 통하여 이 시에서 나타나는 미뇽의 심리상태를 알 수 있다. 제III장 작품분석에서는 여러 시대에 걸쳐 다양한 작곡가들이 작곡한 작품을 시의 문학적 배경의 고찰과 함께, 각 작곡가들의 음악어법을 비교, 분석함으로써 시대의 차이에 따라 작곡가들이 어떻게 시를 이해하고, 시어를 음악적으로 재창조해내었는지 연구하였다. 베토벤의 작품은 다섯 명의 작고가 중 가장 단순한 형식과 화성적 어법으로 이루어져 있다. 간결한 절제미가 돋보이며, 그의 작품의 낭만적 요소가 이후의 작곡가들, 특히 슈베르트의 작품에 직접적인 영향을 주고 있다. 슈베르트의 작품에서는 상당부분 베토벤의 가곡과 유사한 면을 발견 할 수 있다. 그러나 보다 서정적이며, 베토벤의 가곡에 비해 시어에 대한 다양한 표현을 심화시키고 있다. 슈만의 작품은 구조는 단순하지만, 화성이 더 복잡해지고, 보다 극적으로 시를 표현하였다. 리스트의 작품은 각 연의 구조에서 상당한 변화와 다양성을 추구하여 형식상으로나 어법상으로 가장 확대되어 있으며, 전조와 변박의 사용으로 화성적으로도 보다 다양함을 추구하였다. 볼프의 작품은 독특한 낭독조의 선율로 시의 운율과 억양을 따르고 있으며, 시와 음악의 결합이 완벽하게 이루어지고 있다. ;This study examines five different Lieder, by Ludwig van Beethoven(1770-1827), Franz Schubert(1797-1828), Robert Schumann(1810-1856), Franz Liszt(1811-1886) and Hugo Wolf(1860-1903), based on Goethe´s poem "Kennst du das Land." This poem, since the day it was written by Goethe a song of Mignon in his novel,「Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre」, has been composed by many different composers as the text for their art songs or themes for their musical works. Among these compositions, the Lieder of those five previously-mentioned composers illuminate the musical eras in which they respectively lived, as each of them uses his unique and contemporary musical language. In this study, prior to the analysis of these musical works, Goethe´s life and the literary transformations throughout are first discussed, and, consecutively, his poem, "Kinnst du das Land", is closely surveyed with a comprehensive overview of the entire work,「Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre」. As this study compares the musical renditions of the five composers, the focus remains mainly on the ways in which each of them interprets the poem and re-creates this poetic language into the musical expressions that manifest the era he represents. This study is intended to guide the performers in extensive understanding and appropriate interpretation and presentation of each work according to the characteristics of the period and the composer. Beethoven's setting takes the simplest form and harmonic language among these five compositions. That is understandable, considering the fact that instrumental music was given significantly more weight than vocal music during the classical era. Beethoven's rendition is very succinct and shows rather literal understanding of the poem, and it is hard to notice close correlations between the lyrics and the music. However, the beauty of simplicity and temperance is still striking, and the elements of romanticism hinted in this song carry direct influence onto the works of the later composers, especially Schubert. Although Schubert's setting shares many similarities with Beethoven's work, it is, first of all, more lyrical, and, compared to Beethoven's rendition, Schubert expresses the poem in a more varied musical language. Also unlike Beethoven's work, Schubert sets apart the thematic melodies in which the piano part aids in the descriptive representation of the poem rather than taking merely an incidental orle in the accompaniment. Schumann's setting treats the whole poem as one prose, instead of separating verses and refrain as Beethoven and Schubert do in their lieder. This simplifies the formal structure of the piece, but Schumann writes a much more dramatic rendition of the poem by the frequent use of non-harmonic tones and chromatic scales, thus complicating the harmonic structure. In the pursuit of closely-knitted reciprocity between the voice and piano, Schumann includes an independent piano prelude, interlude, and postlude, which give even more significance to the piano part, in fact, takes an equivalent role to the voice part. Liszt's setting seeks to achieve considerable changes and variety in the structure of each verse, which magnifies the form and the syntax of the poem, and his Lied is also harmonically diverse and elaborate due to the use of modulations and meter changes. Nevertheless, the repeated appearances of the thematic idea unify the piece as a whole. This work reaches its distinct climax in the latter part where both harmonic and formal peaks converge after three verses. The role of the piano part is also at its height, and it excalates the musical intensity of the piece with the thematic presentations, Liszt's idiosyncratic broken chords and arpeggios, and frequent interruptions by pauses and rests. Wolf attains perfect congruity between the music and the poem by composing his Lied in peculiar narrative melodies which faithfully follows the rhythm and inflection of the poetic language itself. The voice part and the piano part ingeniously correspond and are treated as one without losing each part's own identity. In the piano part, Wolf often uses syncopation to counter the voice line, which heightens the sense of melodic complexity. Harmonically, each verse is changed at the refrain into a major key in chromatic relation to the tonal center, f minor. Prior to performing each composition, the performer should achieve literary comprehension of "Kennst du das Land" by first grasping the characteristic of Mignon in「Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre」, which provides the background to this poem, Then, by understanding the relationship between the literary structure of the poem and the musical structure of the lieder, and by recognizing the various expressional tools which each composer uses in order to re-create the poetic language into the musical language, the performer will be able to convey to the audience the aspirations of both the poet and the composer hidden in each Lied.
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