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韓國 初期 聖堂建築에 關한 硏究

韓國 初期 聖堂建築에 關한 硏究
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(A) Study on the catholic architecture in the beginning of Korea
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대학원 응용미술과자수전공
한국초기성당건축catholic architecture
이화여자대학교 대학원
韓國의 天主敎는 우리 스스로가 導入해 왔다는 特色과, 100여년간의 泊害事件에 따른 殉敎史를 韓國 天主敎會史의 중요한 意味로 기록하고 있다. 宗敎의 自由가 허락되지 않던 초기에는, 信者들의 집을 방문하여 비밀리에 미사가 집전되었으므로, 聖堂建築의 이렇다할 발전은 없었다. 그러나 1876년 日本에 의한 開港을 선두로 하여, 西洋과의 門戶가 開放되고 信敎의 自由가 허락되자, 우리나라에 傳敎를 맡았던 파리 外邦傳敎會 神父들은 韓國의 信者들을 위하여 天主의 聖殿을 짓기 시작하였다. 그리하여, 최초의 벽돌조 洋式 聖堂인 藥峴聖堂이 1892년에 築造되었다. 이러한 洋式聖堂은, 이 시기의 다른 建築物과 마찬가지로, 移入自體가 非專門家에 의해 이루어졌기 때문에 共通性도 찾을 수 없으며, 他律的인 移入이었으므로 體系的인 수용도 불가능 하였다. 그러나 대개의 聖堂 設計를 맡은이는, 파리 外邦專敎會 神父들로서, 프랑스가 고딕의 본거지로 많은 고딕성당이 있었기 때문에 고딕樣式을 아마츄어의 솜씨로 築造하였다. 1890年에서 1945年 前까지의 初期聖堂建築의 實例를 살펴보면, 시대적으로나 지역적으로 나타나는 特徵은 없으나 대체적으로 後期에 올수록 단순화 되어가고 소규모화 되어가고 있으며, 특히 韓洋折衷式聖堂은, 洋式 聖堂建物이 토착화 되어가고 있다는 일면을 말해준다. 이와같이 建物 그 自體의 藝術的 내지 樣式史的인 큰 特徵은 없더라도 韓國初期 聖堂建築은 信者들의 피땀으로 이룩된 信仰心의 결정체라 볼 수 있다.;Koreans have received Catholic by themselves from foreign country and as a religion which was formed at the end of oppression for 100 years, it is as a matter (meaning) of utmost concern in the Catholic history. Because the religeous freedom was not formed, the Mass was worshiped secretly at a private house. So, at that time there was not remarkable development of church construction. The religeous freedom was established, however, fathers who took care of Korean propagandism began construction a sanctuary in order to made participate the believers at the church regulations. At first, Yakhyun church which has a western style with bricks was constructed in 1892. Since that time (from 1890 to 1945) we can divide church construction into four characters. First in the Catholic history we should put more importance in the believer's devotion included in the construction process than the assessment of architecture itself. Secondly, in architectonic history as the western style architecture of Korea was inflowed another orderly, it was impossible that one should accept systematically, and could not get away easily from the scope of orderly imitation. Third, the fathers of Paris took charge of Korean mission. They accomplished mission and constructed many western style churches. Therefore fathers from France which took charge of a plan constructed Gothic style with a skill of Amateur. Because there was many churches in France which were made in Gothic style. Forth, in the selection of illustrations there are few remarkable characters with time or local but we see generally it is following rather a small or simple scale. Particularly that would be settled as the construction with a western style in the Korean and western style.
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