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서울시 여성경제활동인구에 관한 地理的 考察

서울시 여성경제활동인구에 관한 地理的 考察
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교육대학원 사회과교육전공지리교육분야
서울시여성경제활동인구경제활동FEMALE LABORERS
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
1970년 80년대의 한국의 급속한 경제발전과정속에서 여성의 경제활동 참여는 점차적으로 증가해오고 있다. 본 연구는 과거 10년간 서울시 여성 근로자의 업종별, 연령별 변화 추이를 살펴보고 여성 근로자의 경제활동이 지리적 공간내에서 어떠한 분포 패턴과 특징을 나타내고 있는지를 분석하는데 그 목적이 있다. 그 목적을 수행하기 위한 기초자료는 경제기획원과 노동부에서 발간한 「사업체노동실태조사보고서」 등을 참고하였다. 시대는 편의상 1976년, 1980년, 1986년으로 구분하고 최근 1986년, 시기의 여성경제활동 입지특성은 서울시 동별 지도에 지도화하였다. 이상의 연구절차에 의하여 얻은 결과를 기초로하여 다음과 같은 결과를 기초로하여 다음과 같은 결과를 추출하였다. 1. 서울시 각 지역의 업종별 여성경제활동을 보면 제조업은 여성의 참여가 가장 활발한 업종으로 관악구가 가장 높게 나타나며 건설업은 여성진출이 가장 저조한 업종으로 강동구가 비교적 높게 나타나며 도·소매업은 서대문구·은평구가 높게 나타나며 운수·창고업은 여성의 진출이 연차적으로 둔화되는 현상을 보이며 지역으로는 종로구가 높게 나타난다. 금융업은 서대문구지역, 서비스업은 중구, 서대문구지역이 포함된다. 2. 연령별 분포는 13∼19才층이 가장 활발히 활동을 보이며 다음이 20∼24才로 나타나고 있다. 25∼39才층은 여성의 활동이 급격한 둔화현상을 보이는데 그 원인으로는 결혼과 육아부담 등으로 경제활동에 장애를 초래하기 때문이다. 40∼45才층 이상은 시간이 지남에 따라 점차적으로 증가추세를 보이고 있다.;It is notable to recognize that the participation in economic activities by female has been gradually heaping pace with increasing trend among the rapid process of economic development in Korea throughout the 197th and 1980th. This sudy is aimed at analysing on how distribution pattern and chasracteristic would appear in the geographical sapce of economic activities by female labors through observing the transitional trend by job and age of female labors residing in the city of Seoul for the past ten past ten years. Fundamental data to perform the purpose were referred to "A Survey Report on the Actual State of Enterprises" and "A Survey Report Labors of Enterprises", both published by Economic Planning Board and the Ministry of Labor respectively. For convenience, a series of classification for the age were enumerated as 1976, 1980 and 1986 in order, and the L.Q. index of female economic activities luring the period of 1986was given with guidance by Dong unit in the city of Seoul. In accordance with the process of the study described as above, following findings were sampled on the basis of the results: 1) To take a look at the female economic activies by job in each area of Seoul, it was revealed that manufacturing industry was mostly participated by the majority of female labors, and "Kwanag-ku" was found to be the town of the highest ratio of their participation, and construction industry was the kind of job with the lowest ratio of female's participation and "Kangdong-ku" was relatively higher ratio than others in this regard. While wholesale and retail industry was appeared to be higher than other towns as applied to the towns of "Seodaemun-ku" and "EunpyunB-ku", transportation and warehouse industries showed a phenomenon of slowdown for the female's participation by a yearly trend, add "Chongro-hu" was relatively high among them. As for monetasry industry, "Seodaemun-ku" has the highest ratio, while "Choong-ku" and "Seomun-ku" were included with relatively high ratio for service industry. 2) The distribution by age was revealed that the strata ranging from the age of 13 to the age of 19 showed the most active activities and the next applied to the strata from the age of 29 to the age of 24. However, the strata of 25-39 year-old were shown with the rapidly slowdown phenomena ny female participation, and for the aprticular factor, it was attributable to the fact that the masrriage add the burden of raisins children were caused to the main impediments to their economic activities. With regard to the strata exceeding the age of 40 and 45, their participation trend was shown with an increasing direction in terms of political elements as the times pass by. As outlined above, the economic activities of female in the city of Seoul were appeared with high proportion of their pasrticipation in the fields of manufacturing and wholesale and retail industries, and particularly, it was shown to be the highest among the age strata ranging throughout 13 and 19 year-old.
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