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오류에 대한 두 관점

오류에 대한 두 관점
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(A) Study on the two Different views of Common Errors : Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis
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교육대학원 어학교육전공영어교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
We are born with language acquisition devices, by which we learn not only our native language but also foreign languages. Still we all make errors in learning languages. According to the contrastive analysis hypothesis it is assumed that the comparison between the structures of native language and those of a target language will make the learner's task easier. But it cannot explain most of the errors made by the second language learners. In order to analyze learners' errors in a proper perspective, it is crucial to make a distinction between mistakes and errors. A mistake is a deviation which the speaker or writer can identify if he is told that he made a mistake. An error is a deviation which the speaker or writer cannot identify even if he is told that he deviated from the norms of the language. One of the major contributions of error analysis is its recognition of sources of errors. The significant factors which cause learners' errors are language transfer and overgener alization. The early stages of language learning are characterized by a predominance of interlingual transfer, but once the learner has begun to acquire parts of the new system, more and more intralingual transfer-overgeneralization within the target language-is manifested. A learner's errors are important in three different ways. First, to the teacher, in that they tell him, if he undertakes a systematic analysis, how far towards the goal the learner has progressed, and what remains for him to learn. Second, they provide to tile researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in his discovery of the language. Thirdly, they are indispensable to the learner himself because we can regard the making of error as a device the learner uses in order to learn. English teachers can find and analyze the learners' errors through discourse and written test. They can also compare the phonological system and structures of two languages. The two different views of common errors-contrastive analysis and error analysis-are useful in language teaching.;언어 이론의 변천을 크게 나누어 보면 경험주의에 입각한 언어이론과 이성주의에 입각한 언어 이론으로 구분할수 있을것이다. 경험주의에 입각하여 행동주의 심리학과 결합을 이룬 구조주의언어학의 기본원리는 언어는 문형으로 구성되어 있으며 언어습득은 원칙적으로 습관형성이라는 것이다. 한편 이성주의에 입각하여 인지주의 심리학의 영향을 받은 변형생성 이론은 모든 사람은 태어날때 부터 선천적으로 언어를 습득할 수 있는 능력을 지니고 있다고 본다. 외국어학습의 초기 단계에서는 모국어로부터의 전이현상을 많이 받게된다. 그러나, 어느 정도 제2 언어체계를 습득한 학습자는 제2 언어의 먼저 경험이나 지식이 그 자체내에서 서로 엇갈리고 간섭하는 결과로 인해 오류를 범하게된다. 최근에는 제2 언어습득에 관한 많은 논문들이 오류분석에 관심을 집중시키고 있다. 외국어학습 지도자들은 학습자와의 대화, 필기 시험등을 통해서 학습자의 오류를 발견할수 있을 것이며 그러한 자료들을 분류, 분석, 검토하여 보다 더 효과적인 학습지도를 하는데 도움이될 것이다.
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