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삼한사회 형성과정의 연구

삼한사회 형성과정의 연구
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 연구는 三韓社會의 형성, 발전과정과 문화 성격 규명을 목적으로 다음의 문제들을 고찰하였다. 첫째, 三韓社會를 구성하는 기본단위로서 『三國志』에 기록된 70여 小國들이 형성되는 과정과 문화배경, 둘째 三韓 小國의 구성과 정치?사회적 성격, 셋째 A.D. 1~3세기에 걸친 小國의 정치권력의 성장과정과 사회·경제적 배경, 넷째 각 지역별로 진행되고 있었던 小國聯盟體의 확립과정과 결속기반의 성격에 관한 것이다. 연구의 기본 史料는『三國志』魏書 東夷傳이며, 이밖에 『史記』,『漢書』,『後漢書』,『三國史記』,『三國遺事』가 이용되었다. 그리고 文獻資料의 한계를 보충하기 위해 韓半島 중남부 지역에서 출토된 考古學 유물·유적을 중요자료로 활용하였다. 韓族社會의 토착기반이 형성되는 것은 無文土器文化 단계이다. 그러나 三韓의 각 小國이 형성되는 것은 B.C. 3세기~A.D. 1세기에 걸친 시기이다. 이는 細形銅劍文化를 배경으로 소규모 집단들이 여럿 통합되고 성장하여 평균 인구 10,000~15,000명 정도의 地緣的인 정치집단을 성립시켜나가는 韓族社會의 정치적 발전 과정이다. 그리고 각 小國들이 馬韓, 辰韓, 弁韓으로 分立되는 것은 A.D. 2세기 이후, 철기의 보편화, 생산력의 증대, 武力 대립의 격화라는 사회·경제적 변화를 통해 小國의 정치적 지배권력이 확대되고 지역별로 유력한 小國을 중심으로 聯盟體가 대두된 결과이다. ; Ⅰ. Introduction My dissertation deals with some problems about basic characters of the Samhan society. They are as follows; (1)The process of primitive state formation and their culture background according to the record in the Chinese historical book, Tung-i chuan, San Kuo Chih. (2)The existence of small groups forming each primitive states and their socio-economical functions and interrelationships. (3)The rise of the political power of primitive states during 1-3 cen. A.D. and their socio-economical background. (4)The process of the political-economical interrelationships among the primitive states and their characters. Ⅱ. The Formation of primitive states in the Mahan area Bronze artefacts included in 3-2 cen. B.C. are mainly discovered from Kyonggi, Ch’ungch’ong and Cholla provinces. These artefacts with function of weapons or ceremonial implements show not only status symbol but also evidence of existence of political groups and their cultural background. Highly developed political groups with those cultural background mentioned above, representing the Koechong-dong culture Taejon with stone-cist as their burial system had been existing since 3 cen. B.C., And also another cultures such as Taegong-ni. Hwasun and Yoncheri, Iksan with the influence of Iron culture of Chan Kuo(Warring States) in China contributed to have common cultural background in the Manhan area. Those groups forming primitive states as time goes by, control their own territories and exercise their influence on the other small groups through trade and production of bronze aartefacts. Ⅲ. The Formation of primitive states in the Chinhan and Pyonhan area The characteristics of archaeological materials discovered from Chinhan and Pyonhan area, differently from those of the Mahan area, reveal that the political leader had owned more bronze and iron artefacts than ever before since 1 cen. B.C., Although Kyongju and Taegu area were strongly influenced by culture from the Wiman state, but the other south sea coast areas of Kyongsang province still remained in the state of the Early Iron Age. The formation of primitive states in Chinhan and Pyonhan area is mainly based upon the cultural influence by immigrants from the area of the Wiman state, exploitation and diffusion of iron ores and their use. The records from Tung-I Chuan, San Kuo Chih that immigrants from Ch’in(秦) state of the chan Kuo(Warring States)period, escaping from labor taxation, had formed Chinhan state reflect political-economical situation of those days. Ⅳ. The Organization and Socio-polical characters of primitive states in the Samhan area Primitive states composed of small political groups as their basic units had their own small ‘upnaks’ (邑落), surrounding their political centers named ‘kukup’(國邑). Six villages unified by king Hyokkose, the first king of the Silla dynasty and ‘nune-kan’(九干)by king Suro, the first of the Kaya primitive state are considered as ‘upnak’. ‘Upnak’ is not a simple farming village, but a kinship-based, hierarchical group with a leader on its apex, and with less than 5,000 population at most. Ⅴ. The Development of primitive states in the Samhan area The development of primitive state can be examined by the process of achieving political power of ‘kukup’. Until 1cen. A.D., the kukup had not still enough political power to control ‘upnak’ effectively. Abolishment of iron monopoly of the Han dynasty and transfer her right to private business, and advanced technology producing iron implements had stimulated production and trade in Samhan area also which had finally caused conflicts between the leaders of ‘kukup’ and ‘upnak’. The upnaks were finally ruled by ‘kukups’ around 2 cen. A.D., when they had such social organizations as taxation, specialization, bureaucracy and leadership, still remained in primitive shape. Ⅵ. The Rise of the league of primitive states and the formation of the Samhan Mahan, the league of primitive states had been forming in south Ch’ungch’ong area with the great advantage of making bronze artefacts and trade since 3-2 cen. B.C., but she had been collapsing herself slowly since the rise of the leader of primitive states named Baekche(伯濟)with king Onjo on her apex, located near the Han River which had held real power in coltrolling trade and doing war among the primitive states. Still, Mahan had existed in Cholla province, her own territory until 4 cen. A.D., Chinhan, the league of primitive states, seemed to have been formed by the Saro state, the leader of primitive states by means of the production and trade of iron implements, and interrelationship. Pyonchin had also similar experience to Chinhan, and seemed to have meant other groups in Kyongsang province that did not belong to the league of primitive states named Chinhan. This hierarchical relationship between primitive states and the leaded of primitive states had existed until 4 cen. A.D., Ⅶ. Conclusion My dissertation can be summerized as follows; (1)the common cultural foundation of the Samhan society had been formed during the ‘Plain-coarse pottery’ period. (2)About 70 primitive states as recorded in Thung-i Chian had been formed during 3-1 cen. B.C., when bronze dagger dominated in the Samhan area. (3)The primitive states composed of small political groups with 10,000~15,000 population at most had transformed into ‘the league of the primitive states’ ruled by the leaders named Chinhan, Mahan and Pyonhan around 2 cen. A.D. (4)All these socio-political transformations were mainly based upon the specialization, exploitation of iron ore, increase of surplus food, trade, and conflicts between states.
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