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한국문학의 전통적 성격구명에 대한 연구

한국문학의 전통적 성격구명에 대한 연구
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대학원 국어국문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Since a traditional character of the literary works is a moral tendency or character created for itself in a historical development process of the racial life, it is, in order to bring light on such a traditional character, inevitable to study historically an image and emotion which, appearing in the literary works, are the basic elements, Such an attempt of making a study historically on the image and emotion will throw light on both the basic mental tendency and emotional trend of the Korean literature, but, on the other hand, this will also bring the traditional character to light. If tracing the primordial pattern of the traditional character of our Korean literature from a mythological story or a legend, it is a mental tendency with the maternal affection as “Benevolence of A Bear” manifested in “A Mythological Story of Dan-Kun”. Any pattern, such as complications, a conflict and a conquest, often seen in the foreign mythological stories and legends, can not be traced in our own ones; on the contrary, it is an idea of peace-love transcending a self-interest. It is, therefore, different from such mental tendency not only theorizing one’s right and interest but also seeking after rationality. Actually, it failed to become an intelectual life of seeking after logic but a life feeling with irrationality as having turned to a emotional trend. Accordingly, an attitude of spiritual life appears to have been much more intense in humanity than in laws and regulations. In a life bearing such a mental tendency, our ancestors had been wide open to Buddhism being speculative, philosophical and self-cultivative, nevertheless, they had been rather intense in a mode of life under a supplicatory Buddhism than seeking after intellect of a self-cultivation, and if viewing from “Hyang Ka” (transliteration; the oldest verse in Korea) of the Silla period, poetry bearing a dense color of Buddhism is a verse of emotional supplication. Our ancestors had been also open to Confucianism as a pattern for their attitude to ward politics, economy and philosophy, nevertheless, they made a much great point of the Confucian ethics, and an irrational formalistic attitude with a emotional affinity and union turned into such a life feeling to attach great importance to a faction rather than to a nation, as having exerted a strong influence upon a family-first-principle and a self-renounciationism (unegoism). This is proved by many verses and novels treating the faction. Moreover, during the Lee Dynasty period, various works on the basis of “Sam-Kang Oh-Rin” (transliteration (三綱五倫); “The Three Fundamental Principles In Human Relations And The Moral Rules To Govern The Five Human Relations” (ie., of father and son, master and servant, husband and wife, brother and friends)) failed to interprenetrate into objectivity but created the world of irrational literary works though demonstrating a formal ethics of Confucianism. When actually viewing the form and contents of our ancient verses, without exception, one never fails to notice a form bearing an irrational harmony in which a stereotyped character was mixed with character of the free style. Speaking more concretely, only the number of lines in our ancient verses bears the stereotyped character, such as three lines (in “Shi-Jo” (時調), four lines, eight lines and ten lines (in the “Hyang-Ka” (鄕歌), and six lies (in “Kyongi-Chaeka” (景幾體歌), nevertheless, as no any system, such as a syllabic system or a stress system or a rhyme, is noticed, it is quite of a much free system. In other words, one may safely be allowed not only to point out that it becomes an imperfect stereotyped verse, but also to deem an irrational and illogical form of verse to be called an imperfect vers libre (free verse). This may lead one to view that is peculiar in form to Korea and is different in character from a respect that all the forms of the ancient verses in Orient and Occident bare respectively a stereotyped character. Now, viewing eve from the contents, one may safely be allowed to deem that the most characteristic image and emotion manifested in the “Hyang-Ka” appear to have been attributed to generosity transcending interests of the realities of life. This is not only a virtue of concession customarily but also an idea of goodness and beauty as an ideal lie conception maintained by the Silla people. Such conception bears an irrational character not coinciding with the realities of lie, nevertheless, its mental tendency demonstrates the mind of those Silla people, who appear to have had an ideal for a generous man. The tendency like this can often be seen even in “Seok-Ka” (俗家) of the Koryo Dynasty period and also manifests conception of an irrational emotion. Thus, there were many verses expressing an appeal for an enduring feeling without abandonment though paring from a lover who might have been dissuaded from such a parting. This irrational mental attitude can be seen even among many “Shi-Jo” of the Lee Dynasty period. Now, there had been such a mental tendency to respect more intensively an internal and spiritual truth rather than an external and subjective truth. Even in the observation of nature, therefore, people had thought that observation of a mind, that is to say, the world of contemplation, was much more true, and that such activity was goodness rather than a geometrical observation or a subjective observation, further that an expressing of such observation of a mind, was beauty, as the symbol of the mind. Poets of the Lee Dynasty period composed many verses depicting nature, and though this means the discovery of a natural beauty, nevertheless, it is very difficult to trace a pure scenery-sketchingverse out of those composing the natural beauty. This will demonstrate that even though those verses were composed of the natural beauty, those poets versed a conceptional nature and a subjective nature as having failed to discern an objective nature. Viewing from such angles, it can be deemed that the natural beauty-like thing of our literature is apparently such naturality and natural beauty accomparried with an ethics of human affairs. Accordingly, it can not be deemed either beauty with a selfish tinge emerging out of a pure emotion or a natural beauty of literary consciousness based on some abstracted beauty. It is viewed that emotion of those poets of the Lee Dynasty period, as a combining emotion in which nature was mixed with humanity and an idea harmonizing itself with emotion of an irrational image appears to have created an image of verse. With regard to a superficial technique even in a form of the ancient novels, it seems to have followed and imitated a form of the Chinese novels, however, it is different in composition from that of the Chiness novels. Under such respected that this technique, though presenting suferficially a Confucian color, had struggled indirectly and negatively against the Confucianism and criticized a stateman, the subjects as a constitution of irrationality were indirectly expressed. Moreover, with regard to even the central figures in a work, any hero or intellegent rised in the government world through benevolence of his personality rather than through his outstanding military accomplishments or his excellent scholarship. The very benevolence is connected with generosity, and this is the generosity as well as the benevolence transcending his own right and interest. He bears the same character as that of those figures appearing in the mythological stories ad legends. Such a figure treated in those works is a human image adorned among the people. With regard to even a woman, an image of virtuous woman, therefore, means the very such human image. However, a human image of villaneous retainer disliked by the people seeks stubbornly after only his own interests, and in performance of such activity he looks only for logic and rationality. Thus, no any trace of taking into irrational consideration is noticed in any activity of looking for a villaneous interest. One may safely be allowed to view that such a respect reflecting that a figure adorned among the people became a human image of irrationality, on the contrary, a figure disliked by the people became a human image of rationality, appears to have been attributed to such a mental tendency borne by the people. It is needless to say that our ancient literary works had been subject to an influence of the foreign cultures and that such cultural influence from the outside had then caused our peculiarities to receive a change after having been embellished literary with those foreign cultural influence, nevertheless, one can learn that the irrationality as the main current being a traditional character has been maintained intact. Accordingly, the most racial classic ones so forth are those works in which the traditional character with illogic and irrationality was conspicuously harmonized naturally. Thus, there were many literary men, who have recognized that our modern literature did not originally start from our own tradition, while being confused into thinking that as if a new tradition were created after the past tradition had disappeared from such circumstances under which the traditional character appearing in the Korean ancient literary works came to be subject to the western cultural influence upon the 20th Century. The recent aspect of our literary circles can be summarized that since the 1950’s, a question on the tradition of the Korean literature has started emerging among literary men, there have been such subjects as an argument for inheriting the said question on the tradition of the Korean literature, an argument for ceasing the said question, and an argument for negating the same, while a question on creation of the tradition has been also brought to our literary circles. Now, a subject whether the tradition has not been inherited by the modern literature should be treated as a serious question. First of all, I want to point out the inheritance of the traditional character and then to summarize the modern literary works as follows. Though it is generally recognized that new poems in the western style, published by Choi Nam-Su in 1908, are free verses in a newly westernized style, nevertheless, these poems were likely in the irrational form. Such an irrational form has been soon switched over to a form of the free verse, however, the image and emotion of such verses bear the similar irrationality as being same as those of the ancient verses. For the best example, natural verses of the “Cheong-Rok” school, as beig lacking in a concrete depiction of nature, are similar to the “Shi-Jo” of the Lee Dynasty period in such a respect that they have considered observation of a mine, that is to say, the world of observation, as truth, rather than a realistic observation with subjectivity, being open to nature with an objective self-emotion. I do not, however, mean that this is limited only to those poets belonging to the “Cheong-Rok” school. Moreover, with regard to novels, when viewing from works of those novelists, such as Kim Tong-In and others, including works of Yeom Sang-Sup, who has insisted himself as a naturalist, a method of composing a novel bears the western technique in style, nevertheless, it can be viewed that a composing method of representing indirectly the subject is similar in style to that of those novels of the Lee Dynasty. A novel by Yeom Sang-Sup, entitled “Mansei-Jeon”(萬歲前), is a good example, but, even today, such a method, and yet, being different in its case and composition, bears many respects reflecting the intact inheritance of the irrational method. And in respect to the figures in literary works, an image of irrational humanity, bearing the similarities of those appearing in the ancient novels, enjoys an absolute majority. In other words, an aspect of life to be led for one’s own right and interest is not much seen. A particular that the image of irrational humanity manifested in the ancient novels was subject to the great influence of the French existentialism is still seen even in “John’s Poetical Works”. When viewing as above, it can safely be concluded that the irrational and illogical tradition is still remaining intact, although the main current of the traditional character flowing through the ancient literary works has caused some change subject to the Western cultures and thought according to circumstances. Literary men of the day are leading their literary activities with a western idea, however, both the character and main current of the irrational tradition are manifested implicitly and explicitly in the author’s works in spite of himself. ; 文學作品의 傳統的 性格은 民族生活의 역사적 발전과정에서 스스로 形成된 精神的 경향 또는 性格이므로 이것을 究明하기 위해서는 作品의 基本的 要素가 되는 作品의 心像과 情緖를 역사적으로 考察하지 않을 수가 없다. 그러므로 作品의 心像과 情緖를 역사적으로 究明하는 것은 具體的으로 韓國文學의 根源的인 心的傾向과 情緖의 흐름을 밝히는 것이 되는 同時에 이것은 또한 傳統的 性格을 究明하는 것이 된다. 우리文學의 傳統的 性格의 原始型을 神話 傳說에서부터 찾아 보면 “檀君神話”의 “곰의 仁慈性”으로서 그것은 母性愛的인 사랑의 心的傾向이다. 外國의 神話 傳說에서 흔히 볼 수 있는 葛藤과 鬪爭과 征服같은 것은 없고, 反面 자기의 利害打算을 초월한 平和愛好의 觀念이다. 그러므로 자기의 權利와 利益을 위해 論理的으로 理致를 따지고 合理性을 追求하는 거와는 거리가 먼 것이다. 現實的으로 論理를 求하는 理智的인 生活이 되지 못하고 情的인 傾向으로 흘러 非合理性의 生活感情이기도 한 것이다. 이리하여 精神生活 態度는 法規보다도 人情에 기우러지는 편이 强했던 것이다. 이러한 心的 경향의 生活에서 우리의 先祖들은 思索的이고 哲學的이며 修道的인 佛敎를 받아들였지만, 우리의 佛敎는 自己修道의 理智를 찾기 보다는 祈願과 呪願하는 佛敎로서 生活化하는데 强하여 新羅時代의 “鄕歌”에서 보면 佛敎色彩가 농후한 時歌가 다 情的인 祈願의 노래뿐인 것이다. 또 儒敎의 倫理性을 더욱 重要視하여 家族中心主義와 我主義(非利己主義)에 더 强力히 作用하여 情的인 親和融合의 非合理性의 形式主義 態度는 國家보다도 黨派을 重要視하는 生活感情이 되었었다. 이리하여 黨派을 契機로한 詩歌와 小說이 많다는 것이 이 또한 證明이 되는 것이다. 이뿐만 아니라, 李朝時代의 여러 作品이 “三綱五倫”을 主題로 하여 儒敎의 形式的 倫理觀을 表明하면서도 客觀에 투철하지 못하고 情에 흐른 一種矛盾 不合理한 作品世界를 形成했었다. 實際로 古代時歌의 形式과 內容을 보면, 그 形式에 있어 例外없이 定型性과 自由律의 性格이 혼합 矛盾된 不合理의 調和를 이룬 形式을 볼 수 있다. 좀더 具體的으로 말하면 詩歌의 行數만은 3行(時調), 4行·8行·10行(鄕歌), 6行(景幾體歌)詩의 定型性을 띄고 있으면서도 音數律 音性律 音位律 같은 것이 없으므로 보다 自由스러운 律格인 것이다. 말하자면 不完全한 定型詩도 되고, 不安全한 自由詩라고도 할 수 있는 非合理 非論理의 詩形이라 할 수 있다. 이것은 東西의 古代詩形이 모두 定型性을 띄고 있는 거와는 그 성격이 다른 韓國 特有의 詩形이라 할 수 있다. 다음 內容上으로 보더라도 鄕歌에서 가장 固有的인 心像과 情緖를 나타낸 것은 現實의 利害를 초월한 寬大性이라 볼 수 있는데, 이것은 新羅人들의 理想的인 生活觀念으로서 항상 讓步하는 美德이며, 善과 美의 觀念이기도 한 것이다. 이러한 觀念이 現實과는 附合될 수 없는 非合理의 性格을 띄고 있지만, 그 心的傾向은 寬大하고 度量이 큰 人間을 理想으로 했다는 新羅人들의 마음을 나타낸 것이다. 이러한 경향은 高麗의 “俗歌”에서도 흔히 찾아 볼 수 있는 것으로서 非合理的인 情의 觀念을 表明했던 것이다. 그리하여 붙잡을 수 있는 사랑하는 사람을 떠나 보내면서도 諦念하지 않고 愛怨스러운 忍耐의 마음을 呼訴하는 노래가 많이 表現되었었다. 이와같은 不條理한 心的 態度는 李朝時代의 여러 時調에서도 볼 수 있었던 것이다. 그리하여 外的이고 客觀的 眞實보다도 內的이며 精神的인 眞實을 더욱 尊重하는 心的傾向이었다. 그러므로 自然을 觀察하는데 있어서도 幾何學的인 觀察이나, 客觀的인 寫實的 觀察보다도 마음의 觀察을, 즉 觀照의 世界를 더욱 眞實이라 하고, 그러한 行動을 善이라 생각했으며 그러한 것을 마음의 象徵으로써 表現하는 것이 美라고 생각했었다. 李朝時代의 詩人들이 自然을 읊은 노래가 많아 이것을 自然美의 發見이라고 하지만, 그러나 自然美의 노래에서 한 를 發見하기는 매우 하다. 그것은 위에서 말한 美意識에서 自然美를 읊었다 하여도 客觀的인 自然을 보지 못하고 觀念의 自然과 主觀의 自然을 읊었던 것이다. 이러한 面에 있어 우리 文學의 自然美라는 것은 人事의 倫理性을 同伴한 自然性이고 自然美이라 할 수 있다. 그러므로 순진한 情에서 우러나온 個我的 色彩의 美라든가, 어떤 抽象化된 美에 立한 文學意識의 自然美라고는 할 수 없다. 李朝詩人들이 情緖는 自然과 人倫이 뒤섞인 複合的이며 不合理한 心像이 의 調和를 이룬 觀念으로 詩의 心像을 자아냈다고 보아진다. 古代小說의 形態에서도 表面的인 技法에 있어서는 中國小說의 形態를 따라 그것을 한 것처럼 보이지만 그 構成에 있어서는 中國小說과는 거리가 먼것이다. 表面的으로는 儒敎의 色彩를 내세우면서도 間接的 또는 陰性的으로 儒敎에 反抗하고 爲政者를 한 것등은 非合理의 構成으로서 主題를 間接的으로 表現했던 것이다. 또 作中人物에 있어서도 英雄이나 才士는 武技에 뛰어나든가, 學識이 많다든가 해서 出世한다기 보다도 人品의 仁慈性에 의해 官界의 出世가 되는 것이다. 여기의 仁慈性은 寬大性과 通하는 것인데 이것은 自己의 權利나 利益을 초월한 仁慈性과 寬大性이다. 이것은 神話 傳說의 人物들과도 同一한 性格을 가지고 있다. 이러한 作中人物들은 民衆에게서 崇拜받는 人間像들이다. 그러므로 女人像에 있어서도 賢母良妻像은 바로 이러한 人間像은 악착스럽게 自己 權益만을 추구하고, 그러한 行動을 하는데 있어 論理的이며 合理性만을 쫓고 있다. 그리하여 奸惡한 利益을 추구하는데 있어 非合理的인 計算은 하나도 없는 것이다. 이처럼 民衆에게서 推仰을 받는 인물은 非合理性의 人間像이 되고, 반대로 憎惡 받는 人物은 合理性의 人間像이 되었다는 것은 一般 民衆들이 그러한 心的傾向을 가졌었기 때문이라고 할 수 있다. 古代文學作品은 外來文化의 영향을 많이 받아 固有의 것이 潤色되고 變容을 일으키었지만, 그러나 主流가 되는 傳統的 性格인 非合理性이 그대로이어 온 것을 알 수가 있었다. 따라서 가장 民族的인 古典이라 할 수 있었던 것은 非論理 非合理의 傳統的 性格이 가장 自然스럽게 調和가 이루어진 作品들이었다. 그런데 韓國 古代作品에 흐르는 傳統的 性格은 20세기에 들어와 西歐文化의 영향을 받아 아마 過去의 傳統이 끊어지고 새로운 전통이 바야흐로 이루어지는 것처럼 錯覺을 일으키어, 우리의 現代文學은 “自己 傳統의 出發이 아니다” 라고 認識하고 있었던 文學人이 많았던 것이다. 그리하여 1950年代 以後에 들어와 韓國文學의 傳統論이 대두하기 시작하여 傳統論의 繼承論, 斷絶論, 否定論이 있는가 하면 새로운 傳統의 創造論까지 대두하고 있는 것이 現況이라 할 수 잇다. 그러면 果然 傳統은 現代文學에 이러 오고 있지 않은가 하는 문제는 重大하지 않을 수가 없다. 여기서는 우선 傳統的 性格이 이어 오고 있음을 먼저 일러두고 現代文學作品을 槪略하기로 한다. 1908년에 崔南善이 처음으로 西歐的인 스타일의 新詩를 發表한 것을 일반적으로 새로운 형태의 西歐的인 自由詩라고 하지만, 이 詩 역시 非合理性의 詩形이었다. 이러한 非合理性의 詩形은 얼마가지 않아 自由詩形으로 바뀌어져 갔지만, 그러나 詩의 心象과 情緖는 고대시가나 다를 바 없이 非合理性을 지니고 있다. 그 좋은 예로 “靑鹿”派의 自然詩는 自然에 대한 具體的인 描寫性이 缺如되어 主觀的인 主情으로 自然을 받아들이므로 客觀的인 事實的 觀察보다 마음의 觀察, 즉 觀照의 世界를 眞實이라고 생각한 점은 李朝의 時調의 경우와도 마찬가지이다. 이것은 靑鹿派 詩人들에게만 局限된 것은 아니다. 그리고 小說에 있어서도 自然主義 作家로 自處했던 廉想涉 의 作品을 위시하여 金東仁 그 外 여러 作家들의 作品에서 볼 때 小說 構成方法은 西歐的인 技巧로 이루어졌지만 主題를 間接的을 表示하는 構成方法은 李朝小說과 그 類를 같이 한다고 볼 수 있다. 廉想涉의 “萬歲前”은 그 좋은 例이지만 오늘에도 이러한 手法은 그 境遇와 構成은 다르다 하더라도 非合理的 手法만은 그래도 繼承되는 것이 많다. 또 作中人物에 있어서는 古代小說의 人物과 類似性을 띄고 있는 非合理的 人間像이 絶對多數를 차지하고 있다. 다시 말하면 自己의 權利와 利益을 위해 生活해나가는 生活人의 모습은 그리 많지가 않다. 古代小舌의 非合理性의 人間像은 오늘날 프랑스 實存主義의 영향을 가장 많이 받았다는 “요한 詩集”에서도 여전히 볼 수가 있는 것이다. 이렇게 볼 때 古代 文學作品에 흐르고 있는 傳統的 性格의 主流는 그것이 西歐文化와 思想에 의해 때에 따라서 變容을 일으키었다고 하여도 非合理 非論理의 傳統性은 그대로 흐르고 있다고 認定되는 것이다. 今日의 文學人들이 西歐的인 觀念으로 作品活動을 하고 있지마는, 非合理的 傳統의 性格과 主流는 作者 自身도 모르게 그의 作品에 陰陽으로 表現되고 있는 것이다.
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