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삼국시대 고구려 미술이 백제, 신라에 끼친 영향에 관한 연구

삼국시대 고구려 미술이 백제, 신라에 끼친 영향에 관한 연구
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Despite the chronological order of national foundation in Silla, Koguryo, and Paekche as recorded in historical literature, progress in nation-building and culture was achieved in the order of Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla, Koguryo most advanced culturally among the three as it could always absorb continental culture to a greater extent. The facts that Buddhism was introduced into Silla by way of Koguryo, the first national academy for Confucianism was established in Koguryo in the fourth century after Christ, and compilation of annals was undertaken in the Paekche kingdom in the same century, the introduction of Chinese characters into Koguryo being one century before Silla, indicate that culture blossomed out in the nothern kingdom very early. That the art of Koguryo exerted a profound influence on Silla can be proved in a concrete manner by the facts that a vessel baked to honor Koguryo King Kwanggaet’o was found in an ancient Silla tomb in Kyongju and the Silla gold crown excavated from the Gold Crown Tomb retains an influence from the culture of northern Eurasian nomadic tribes, indicating that culture most probably flowed into Silla via Koguryo. The influence Koguryo had on Paekche and Silla comes to the fore when architecture, sculpture, handicraft, and painting of the three kingdoms are examined and analyzed in comparison. A cluster of old square tombs in T’ung-kou represented by the General’s Tomb is protected by huge natural stones. The natural protection stones underwent elaboration in style and developed into shallow stone foundations for such earthen tombs of Koguryo as Tae-chong in To-bo-ri, Sashinch’ong in Honam-ni, both in Sijong-myon, Hanwangmyo in Han-pyong-ni, Kang-dong-gun, and Tomb No. 10 in Chin-pa-ri. This style is manifest in such Paekche tombs as Tombs No. 2 and No. 5 in Nung-san-ni, Puyo. Introduced into Silla, the style was employed for the tombs of King Mu-yol and Kim Yang after further elaboration with small-sized natural protection stones (which were further developed during the Unified Silla period). Apparently these Silla and Paekche tombs retain an influence from the protection stones in ancient Koguryo tombs. The form of square tombs which is found in the General’s Tomb is manifest also in early Paekche tombs in the Kwang-ju area. It is presumed that this style was an influence of the square tombs and mounds with stone slabs which were in vogue in China and that the style was imported vogue in China and that the style was imported into Paekche by way of Koguryo. In Buddhist temple architecture, it is to be noted that the style of Kum-kang-sa Temple of Koguryo, presumed to have been constructed in 499, with the pagoda in the center surrounded by prayer halls to the north, to the east, and to the west, had a connection with the style of a temple in Kun-su-ri, Puyo, which is presumed to have been constructed after 538 and whose site alone remains now, and with the style of Asukatera Temple in Japan which was constructed in 609. In sculpture, the Buddhist images of the three kingdoms show no distinct difference in style from each other, and so it is difficult style from each other, and so it is difficult to make a comparative study on statues of the three kingdoms. I n this paper, there, I only introduced the following works, with their geographical distribution in mind. A seated statue of Buddha on a rock cliff, a group of statues on a rock cliff, and a stone statue of Mairtreya in meditation, all Silla works located in Pukchi-ri, Pong-hwa; a statue of Buddha with two attendant Bodhisattvas carved on a rock cliff in Ka-hung-ni, Yongju, and a four-faced statue of Buddha in Sok-po-ri, Yongju; a stone grotto with a statue of Buddha with two attendant Bodhisattvas in Kun-wi; a gilt bronze statue of Maitreya in meditation discovered in Ok-tong, Andong; some bronze statue of Buddha discovered in the ruined site of Suk-su-sa Temple in Yongju, etc. It was clarified that although some of the works listed above were produced in the Unified Silla period, they generally retain the style of the Three Kingdoms Period; and through which can we have a glimpse of the Chinese style of Buddha statues in the South-North Dynasty period. Furthermore, they show close connection with such Koguryo statues as the gilt bronze statue of Buddha bearing the inscription that it was cast in the fourth year of Yon-ga, a statue of Buddha accompanied with two Bodhisattvas with the inscription telling it was a product in the year of Shin-myo, an earthen statue of Buddha in Won-o-ri, and a statue of Maitreya in meditation in Pyong-chon-ni. The sites where they were discovered were inside the ancient Koguryo territory beyond the Tae-back Mountain Range, and a mural which shows a strong Koguryo influence was discovered in Yongju. In view of these facts, it is apparent that the influence of Koguryo arts on the Pong-hwa-Yong-ju area was strong. In the field of handicraft, I first mentioned the three birds which decorate the gold crown excavated from the Phoenix Tomb in Kyongju. These birds are similar in notion to the birds conceived by the primitive religion of northern Asiatic tribes, to the birds which appear as decorations for hats in murals inside ancient Koguryo tombs, and to the birds which decorated the top of a pole erected at the entrace to a village to welcome its son who passed the Civil Service Examination in the Yi Dynasty period. A similar conception can be found in various trinkets for hats found in ancient tombs of Koguryo, Silla and Kaya which are round or in the shape of bird wings, a bird flying, or bird feather. They seem burial accessories as they are inconvenient for daily use and recent find-dings in archaeology as to the places of their discovery. The king’s crown and the queen’s crown discovered in the tomb of Paekche King Mu-nyong are similar to each other as far as their external appearance is concerned; and the lotus flower pattern the wild grass pattern which decorate the crowns are similar to those which are found on the nimbus of Chinese statues of Buddha, patterned bricks discovered in Puyo, and Koguryo tiles. The Koguryo pot with four ears glazed yellow-brown excavated in T’ung-kou is similar in shape to the bronze pot with four ears excavated from the Gold Crown Tomb in Kyongju. The perforated patterns on Silla harness, hats and buckles are transformations of the fernbrake pattern which, having originated in Han China, was introduced into Koguryo through the Lolang Colony. In painting, it was pointed out that while relics of Koguryo painting ca be found in tomb murals fairly in a number, the relics of Paekche and Silla paintings are very few. The lotus flower pattern found in their handicraft items and the recent discovery of paintings in the tomb of King Mu-nyong and Tomb No. 155 in Kyongju enable a comparative study on the paintings of the three kingdoms to a limited extent. As Paekche and Silla lotus flower pattern, we can cite those on the queen’s goblet found in the tomb of King Mu-nyong, those on tomb murals dating back to the ancient Silla period found in Sun-hung near Yongju, and those on tomb murals dating back to the Kaya period found in Koadong, Ko-ryong. In both shape and color tone, these patterns show a close affinity to murals in old Koguryo tombs. Concerning the cloud pattern, it was explained that the oldest was one to be found in Anak Tomb No. 3, which transformed into those of the Samsilchong Tomb and Chin-pa-ri Tomb No. 1, giving birth to many variations such as those to be found in the Nung-san-ni Tomb, on patterned bricks excavated in Kyu-am-ni, Puyo, on hats made of birch bark excavated from the Gold Bell Tomb in Kyongju, and on mud shield excavated from Tomb No. 155 in Kyongju. All of them have connection with the cloud pattern found in Han Chin’s lacquerware. Also having their origin in Koguryo tomb murals are the pattern which decorates the queen’s pillow in the Tomb of Paekche King Mu-nyong and the paintings of flying horses and felicitous birds drawn on mud shield and wooden plates excavated from Tomb No. 155 in Kyongju. In all of the above four fields of arts, it is clear, as many scholars assert, that the culture of the Three Kingdoms originated in the northern Asiatic culture even though their relics are not sufficient in number and chronological arrangement of the remains extant has yet to be conducted with some absolute authenticity. Also apparent is the fact that Paekche and silla introduced the northern Asiatic culture not directly but with Koguryo as an intermediary. Although many problems are yet to be given solution with the discovery of new additional materials and what we not know for certain will have to be supplemented or revised, it ca be safely maintained with materials discovered so far that the influence of Koguryo culture on Paekche and Silla was considerably strong.
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