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Ludwig van Beethoven Cello Sonata op.102, No.2에 대한 연구 및 분석

Ludwig van Beethoven Cello Sonata op.102, No.2에 대한 연구 및 분석
Other Titles
A Study on Ludwig van Beethoven Cello sonata No.5 Op.102-2
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
첼로는 하이든(Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732∼1809)과 모차르트(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1756∼1791)에 의하여 독주악기로 조금씩 인정받기 시작하였으며, 베토벤에 의하여 음악적으로 중요한 의미를 가지게 되었다. 베토벤은 1796년에서부터 1815년까지 약 20년에 걸쳐 5개의 첼로 소나타를 작곡하였다. 5개의 첼로 소나타는 고전시대 말기와 낭만시대 초기에 걸쳐서 작곡되었기 때문에 시대상 그 특성을 달리하고 있다. 초기에 작곡된 작품에서는 고전주의 양식과 형식을 모방하면서 베토벤의 특유의 개성적인 기법이 나타나지만 중기, 후기에 작곡된 작품에서는 그 전에 볼 수 없었던 낭만주의 음악기법이 나타난다. 본 논문은 베토벤의 생애와 18세기말 시대적 배경을 다룬 후, 시기에 따른 음악적 양식의 변화를 다룬다. 또한 5개의 첼로소나타 각 작품의 특징을 소개하며 그 중 마지막에 작곡하여 낭만주의적 성향이 가장 잘 드러나는 Sonata for Piano and Cello D Major, Op.102 No.2 을 분석하여 베토벤이 첼로의 다양한 매력을 어떠한 방법으로 표현하였는지를 연구한다. 이 연구를 통하여 베토벤의 음악적 특징과 작품의 배경을 이해하고, 곡 해석에 대한 이해도를 높여 이 곡의 실제 연주에 도움이 되고자 한다.;Ludwig van Beethoven(1770~1827) is a great composer who established music forms of Classical period and opened era of Romanticism. Improving Classical form by succeeding with Franz Joseph Haydn(1732~1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(1756~1791), Beethoven completed Sonata form and influenced Romantic School in 19th century. Beethoven belongs to Classical School, revolution in end of 18th century added value to freedom, equality and benevolence also affecting Beethoven's works. Beethoven went beyond Classical Music's formalism, objectivity, clarity, simplicity, traditionalism and expressed emotions naturally using forms freely. Eventually it derived musics of Romantic School and acted as bridge between Classical School and Romantic School. The Beethoven established violoncello's musical status. The Beethoven composed the five pieces of cello sonata. When dividing the Beethoven's work tendency by Vincent d`Indy, Op.5 No. 1&2 were composed during the first period and Op.69 was composed during the second period. Op.102 No.1&2 were composed during the third period. Op.5 No. 1&2 has slow introduction which expresses simplicity and clarity affected by Haydn. Op.69 was composed based on classical form and content but it expresses Beethoven's own character by developing synchronism and lyrical melody. Op.102 No.1&2 were composed during transition period and has most romantic aspects. Different from former works, this piece has movements of breaking rules, principles, and customs. The Beethoven expanded cello's range of note and conjugated cello's functions and characters. Beethoven Sonata for Piano and Cello D Major, Op.102 No.2 analyzed in this paper shows that cello's status became equivalent to that of piano by using wide range of notes. This piece consists of three movements. The first movement has Sonata-Allegro Form, skipping the former slow introduction and following traditional Sonata form. But synchronic relations develops unity and contrapuntal method was used to form romantic tendency. The second movement has Adagio Tempo Ternary Form. It is the only slow movement among the Beethoven's cello sonata. The cello and piano's theme and figure crosses intimately. The third movement has grand scale of 4 part Fugato. Beethoven Sonata for Piano and Cello D Major, Op.102 No.2 went beyond the traditional Classicism and opened road to the Romanticism based on free-form and contrapuntal methods. In addition, this piece added value to cello's wide range of tone, figure to influence Romantic composer to compose more cello pieces.
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