- 서역 소조상의 연구
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- 대학원 미술사학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 본 논문에서는 기왕의 연구들이 각 오아시스국가들이 독립된 미술양식을 가지고 있는 것처럼 보려고 하는 경향, 혹은 남로와 북로를 구분하여 각각이 서로 다른 독특한 양식적 특징을 가진 것처럼 보려는 것이 과연 타당한가에 관해 의문을 제기하였다. 연구대상과 범위는 서역남 ·북로의 유적지 즉 마란, 호탄, 툼슉, 쇼르축을 포함한 쿠차지역 그리고 투르판의 소조상에 관해 살펴보되, 그 중에서도 특히 간다라조각양식의 영향이 강하게 나타나는 소조상들을 중심으로 하였다. 시기는 서역에 불교가 유입된 시기부터 중국의 영향이 보이기 시작하는 7~8세기 이전까지로 제한하였다.
제1장 제2절 硏究史의 現況에서는 1960년이후 지금까지 서역소조상에 관한 논고들을 중심으로 하되 대표적인 1~2편에 예를 중심으로 하여 기왕의 연구현황을 살펴보았다. 제3절 ‘技法과 材料에 의한 名稱의 問題’에서는 우선 소조상을 만드는 방법에 따라 크게 型造(mould)와 手造로 나누고, 다시 각각을 燒成式(teracotta)과 乾燥式으로 나누었다. 이중 乾燥式은 다시 재료에 따라 스터코像과 泥像으로 나뉘어져, 결국 소조상을 기법과 재료에 따라 6가지 종류로 나누어 보았다.
제2장부터 제5장까지는 미란, 호탄 쿠차지역, 투르판의 순으로 각 지역의 역사적인 배경과 불교, 소조상의 형식 및 양식적 특징과 조각사적 의의에 관하여 살펴보았다. 이와 같은 고찰을 통해 살펴 본 결과, 물론 각 오아시스국가의 유적지들, 즉 미란, 호탄, 쿠차, 투르판의 미술이 나름대로의 독특한 양식적 특징을 지니고 있다는 사실에 관해서는 지금가지도 이론의 여지가 없다. 그러나 이들을 좀 더 넓은 시각으로 바라본다면, 각 지역의 미술들의 특징과 특징 속에 서로 공통양식이 있음을 발견할 수 있게 되었고, 이러한 사실은 5~6세기경의 몇몇 문헌사료들과 관계자료들을 통해 좀 더 확신을 얻을 수 있었다.
첫째, 『漢書』西域傳의 ‘龜玆國 … 南與精絶 東南與且末 西南與 彌 北與烏孫 西與姑接…’등으로 유사한 기록은 얼마든지 찾아볼 수 있다. 두 전재로 法懸(399년 長安) 의 入竺 路에 관한 기록이다. 그는 처음에 북로를 선택하여 서쪽으로 길을 가다가 남로의 호탄으로 내려와 인도로 가는 길을 택하였다. 이는 타클라마칸사막을 통과하는 남로와 북로 사이에 일정한 통로가 있었다는 이야기가 된다. 그 밖에도 唐·宋代에 이르기까지 많은 구법승이나 상인들도 이 길을 이용하였다는 기록도 보인다. 세번째로는 툼슉(Tumshuk 圖木舒克, 옛 疏勒國)에서 발견된 문서 위에 쓰여진 브라미(Brahmi)문자는 서역남로의 호탄어가 변화한 것으로 언어학적으로도 남로와 북로의 연관관계는 짐작된다. 네번째로 『魏書』于전國傳에는 ‘…自外風俗物産與龜玆略同…’ ‘외국으로부터 들어온 풍속, 물산이 쿠차와 대략 같다’라고 기록되어 있는 쿠차에서 왔다는 불상에 관한 것이다.
이같은 몇가지 문헌사료들을 놓고 볼 때, 각 오아시스간에는 東西간은 물론이고 험준한 사막을 가운데 두고 있는 남북간에도 비교적 많은 왕래가 있었음을 알 수 있는데, 이러한 기록들은 서역의 공통양식이 성립될 수 있는 충분한 조건이 된다. 그렇다면 남·북로의 유적지에서 공통으로 나타나는 서역공통양식이라는 것이 무엇인가에 관해 살펴보겠다.
첫째, 조각의 배치방법이다. 모두 方形 사원지의 벽면에 비슷한 크기의 소조상들을 병렬시키고 있다는 점에서 기본적으로는 일치한다. 물론 이와같은 형식이 간다라 탁실라 등지의 배치방법에 기원을 둔 것이기는 하지만, 서역남북로의 평지사원지에 적극수용되어 나타난다는 것이다. 두번째는 佛衣주름의 형식이다. 그 중에서도 가장 특징적인 것은 허리선부터 무릎에 이르기까지 수직주름이 있고, 그 수직주름과 수직주름 사이를 서로 잇는 깊은 U자형의 주름이 물결처럼 내려오는 주름형식이다. 이와같은 주름형식은 이곳 서역에서 보여지는 특징적인 것이다. 불의형식에 있어서 또 하나 특기할 만한 것은 우견편단의 불의에 있어서 上衣가 大衣 밖으로 노출되어 있는데, 이 때 上衣의 자락은 대의자락과 평행을 이룬다는 것이다. 세번째로 얼굴모습이다. 지금까지 주로 쿠차 소조상에서만 나타나는 것으로 알려져 왔던 특징, 즉 얼굴에 墨線을 많이 사용함으로 인하여 강한 인상을 준다거나, 눈동자를 약간 위쪽으로 표현하여 마치 눈을 치켜뜨고 있는 듯한 모습등이 남북로유적지에 공통으로 보여진다는 것이다. 네번째 광배이다. 남로 호탄의 특징적이 광배형태로 간주되어 왔던 위가 뾰족한 광배가 북로에서도 보인다. 끝으로 평지사원지들은 남북양로를 막론하고 이중의 건축구조를 지닌 예가 많다.
이상에서 이곳 서역의 미술이 西域以西의 미술양식을 동쪽으로 옮기는 여과장치의 역할 만을 한 것이 아니며, 나름대로 하나로 집결되는 서역소조상의 공통양식이 성립되어 있었음을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 서역에서 이와같은 양식이 성립되게 하는데 가장 큰 영향력을 미쳤던 양식이 바로 간다라양식, 특히 간다라후기의 소조상양식이었으며, 서역의 소조상은 이를 바탕으로 앞서와 같은 새로운 양식을 창조했다는 것이다.;This thesis is basically designed to study the clay-sculpture of the Silk Road. There has been some solid trends on this problem, that is to say, to divide the style of the Silk Road into two different ones, Northern way and Southern way, or to give its own character to art style of each oasis country. I have had so much questions on this trend that I reviewed this problem in this thesis. The geographical category of this study is confined to the remains of the Silk Road, that is, Miran, Khotan, Kucha(including Tumshuk and Shorchuk) and Turfan. Also, I’ve confined the period of this study, from time when the Buddhism was introduced to the Silk Road area to the 7~8 century when the Chinese style began to influence.
After reviewing the articles on this problem, especially written after 1960’s I presented the some skills and materials of the clay-sculpture for the better understanding in III Chapter of the Part One. First of all, lay-sculpture is divided into mould style and the handcraft style, and each one is divided into terracotta style and dry-building style. Of these ones, the dry-building style can be also divided into stucco statue and clay statue. After all, six kinds of clay-sculpture can be categorized according to the skills and materials.
From the Part Two to the Part Five, I’ve studied the background of these areas, the characteristics of the Buddhism, the style and the distinctive features of the clay-sculpture in these areas, the significance in the context of sculpture history.
Part Two, ‘The clay-sculpture of the Miran’ analyzed the 2nd, 15th relics of the fifteen temple remains. This analysis shows that the Miran clay-sculptures ae very familiar with the relieves of the Jaulian temple relics, the clay Buddha statue of the Tepe-Shotor temple relics in Hadda, Afghanistan, the clay Buddha state of the Khotan and the clay Buddha statue of the Bind-ling-shi(炳靈寺) 169th cave, but miran ones are built earlier than the other ones in the manner of style. Therefore, the period of this Miran clay-sculptures cannot be made after the 5th century.
There are some more evidences. The first one is the historical background of this area, the second one is the polar decorations attached to the building wall opposite to the Buddha statue, and the last one is Sanscrit documents written in the India which could be date back to 4~5 century.
Therefore, it is certain that these sculptures was built in the 4th century. More detaily speaking, proberbly the clay Buddha statue of the 2nd temple relics was made from the middle of 4th century to the last of 4th period, the clay Buddha statue of the 15th temple relics was made after the 2nd temple relics’.
These sculptures has much significance. That is, these ones not only links the India and China, but also has achieved its own characteristic art style. It means that these sculptures reflects the desire to make Silk Road’s own style after the period of imitating the Gandhara.
Part Three, ‘The clay-sculpoture of the Khotan’ analyzed the caly-sculptures of the Rawak temples. Rawak temples. Rawak temple, one of the representative Southern Silk Road site, was surrounded by the double wall around the stupa, in the inner and outer part of which hundreds of clay sculptures were arranged. I divided these sculptures into two groups, the first one is the sculptures distributed in the inner part of the inner wall, the second one consists of the sculptures distributed in the outer part of the inner wall and the both parts of outer wall.
A three-meter high big statue of the first group was made after the typical Gandhara Buddha and this kind of purity can be seen in all the big statue of the first group. The second group displays the body as like as possible, while succeeding in the mode of the first group. Especially a Buddha whose taut body is sticked to by the very thin robe says the influences of detailed the Mathura techniques in the Gupta period. But the strange line of robe folds is different from the one of the Mathura school in the Gupta period, instead conneting with the great Buddha of Bamiyan. The Bodhisattva head of the second group is also important because it explains the interconnection with the Tumshuk, Kizil of the Notern Silk Road. It is not to say that these are based on the Gandhara mode of the first group.
Then it is time to make a periodization. The period of first group should be between the middle 4th century and the first 5th century because it models after the typical Gandhara pieces. The period of second group can be assumed to from the first 5th century to the middle 5th century because of the following reasons; first one is the formanization of the sculptures in spite of the some existing pure Gandhara mode, second one is that it describes the body as like as possible. Therefore the period of Rawak temple could be traced back to the period from middle 4th century to the middle 5th century. This conclusion coincides with the time the Buddhism was very popular around the Khotan.
I also would like to raise a possibility that the ‘rauraka’(roruka, 曷勞落迦, 勞落迦) which appears in the part of Chou-sha-dan-na(추사旦那) of the Record of Western Kingdoms(大唐西域記) was a Rawak temple. When Xuan-Zang(玄奬) travelled this area in the first 7th century, that site was buried so there was nothing he could see. Therefore the closing period of the Rawak temple would be around the 6th period, then we can also suppose the above building period has another evidence.
The clay sculptures of the Rawak temple site reaching about 1000 pieces was diliberately built under the elaborate great plan, influenced by the atmosphere of Avatamsaka philosophy(華嚴思想). It not only produced a 'Khotan' characterssitics, but also made a contributin to establish a archaic style of the Silk Road.
Part Four, 'The clay-sculpture of the Kucha' analyzed the clay-sculpture of the Tumshuk Tagh Shahri relics in Kashgar(疏근國), the Kara-shar Mingoi and Shorchuk relics in Kara-shar(焉자 國)as well as the ones of Kucha.
There exists some common elements between Kucha clay-sculptures, for example, the equally incised lined-fold on the Buddha clothes, the special cloth-folds of the lower part of the Buddha body. However, differences are easily seen between Kucha clay-sculptures. In case of Buddha body, there are two groups. The second group is the ones which are diversely and freely displayed
The former one seems to have been built around the period from the middle part of the 4th century to the last part of the 5th century, because it is similar to the Rawak temple clay-sculptures of the Khotan which was made in the same period. The latter one seems to have been built from 6th century to the 7th century, this type is succeeded by the Turfan sculptures.
The Buddha heads in the Kucha areas can be categorized into three groups. The first one is basically typical Gandhara style, which has longish face, but totally gentlely impressed. The second one seems to be flattened because it is slightly carved, and totally strong- impressed compared to the first group bacause they have eyes, inner part of which looks like bottle ?neck, and uplooking pupils. The third group is stereo-typed one, having round face, spacious forehead, no face expressions.
These characteristics of the Kucha cllay-sculptures have been considered as the specific factor which can be seen only in the Kucha areas. However, we can see these factors in the clay-sculptures of the Silk Road Southern Way. Therefore, from now on, we should not regard as the specific character of the Kucha area. But it also should be granted that Kucha area had special historical backgrounds. Kucha had prospered because there were so much of natural materials, fertile lands that lots of merchants crowded in this area. And according to this prosperity, many temples were built where a number of paintings and sculptures were attached.
Part five, ‘The clay-sculpture of the Turfan’ shows that the clay-sculptures of the Turfan links Kucha and China. Of all the oasis countries, Turfan had been most influenced by the Chinese in the geographical sense as well as in the political sense. However, there also exists relationship with western areas, so we can see that the clay-sculptures of the Turfan had been influenced by the western area style.
The Buddha clay-sculptured statue excavated in Khocho is the representative example. It is similar to the freely expressedones of the Tonguz-Bash and Kara-shar Mingoi of the Kucha area.
Anyway, the clay-sculptures of the Turfan linking Kucha and China have particular significance. It explains how the Gandara style in the Silk Road areas closed, and how the Chinese sculpture factors had been settled in these areas.
As the above, we can not deny that each oasis country including Miran, Khotan, Kucha, Turfan had its own stylistic character. However, we can also find out the common characters between the arts of the each area. It can be backed up if we make best of the written historical sources such as Han-shu(漢書), Wei-shu(魏書), Fa-xien-chuan(法顯傳), the Record of Western Kingdoms(大唐西域記).
That is to say, lots of people came and went not only between oasis countries, but also between Northern Way and Southern Way of the Silk Road. It means that we can suppose the common style of the Silk Road. What is the common style of the Silk Road which could be found in the both relics of the Northern and Southern Way?
First, the way of arrangement. Most of clay-sculptures are displayed in the wall of squre temple as a same size.
Second, the style of the Buddha-cloth folds. Especially, buddha cloth is folded vertically from the waist to the knee, and between these vertical folds there are also another ‘U’-shaped folds which looks like a ripples. Besides, in open mode of the Buddha cloth, under cloth (uttara-samgha)is parallel to the line of robe(samghati).
Third, the shape of face. Totally strong-impressed face resulted from color-painting, the uplooking pupils(express just half of the pupil on the upper part of eyes)can be found out in both sides of the Silk Road.
Fourth, Buddha’s mandorla. Sharp-pointed of the Buddha’s mandorla that has been considered as a unique character of the Sothern Silk Road, can be also seen in the Northern Silk Road.
Fifth, the temple architecture. In both sides of the Silk Road, dual structure of temple is commonly found in case of plain temples.
In conclusion, the art of Silk Road has achieved its own common style of clay-sculpture, while making a role of filter from the West to the East. It is needless to say that later Gandhara style made a great influence to this shaping of Silk Road sculpture style, and Mathura style of Gupta dynasty made a second role. With these style, it was possible to shape a Silk Road clay-sculpture style.
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