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초등학교 체육수업에서의 문제행동 아동에 관한 연구
- 초등학교 체육수업에서의 문제행동 아동에 관한 연구
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- 교육대학원 체육교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- The objectives of this research are to analyze various types of behavioral problems and their underlying causes within an elementary physical education class; to observe the different methods teachers apply in dealing with these behavior problems. The research is based on the case studies of four students in the third and fourth grade. Their behaviors were observed in six classes. Additional data was collected through in-depth interviews with the children and their teachers. Interviews with children were conducted randomly while the teachers were interviewed over two sessions. The data was analyzed under the constant comparative method and the reliability of the data was enhanced through subject checks, peer debriefing, and the triangulation of the data. The results of the research are as follows:
First, through the analysis based on the observations of the children with behavior problems, the behaviors were categorized into four types: "over-action behaviors," "aggressive behaviors," "withdrawal-anxiety behaviors," and "isolation behaviors." Child "A" in the aggressive behavior group picked on others and hit other classmates without particular reason and usually spoke thoughtlessly. He often made degrading remarks about females and violated rules in his excessive desire for winning. Child "B" belonged to the "over-action behavior" type. He always wandered around in class. Child "B" could not concentrate or sit down for long periods of time. His eyes darte around and he moved his jaw up and down with his mouth hanging open. His hands were always unclean because he continuously bit his nails. Child "C" belonged to the "withdrawal-anxiety behavior" type. She did not have any confidence nor perseverance. She played with dirt when things do not go as she wanted. Due to her lack of confidence, she was easily reduced to tears and cries often in class. Whenever a new activity was introduced, she became reluctant and nervous. Furthermore, she harbored feelings of inferiority because of her smaller size and younger age. Child "D" was categorized as the "isolation behavior" type. She had no interaction with other classmates. The male classmates often mocked her because of her plain features and slow actions.
Second, the results of the analysis on the causes of behavior problems indicated that the children were aware of their problems. The children's parents were also aware of their problems but were not able to come up with workable solutions to change their behavior. Mostly the problem children showed interest in interacting with their classmates but were not good at it. They did not have close friends and believed that the other students did not like them. In spite of these difficulties, the children were generally satisfied with school life and preferred classes with various student participating activities such as physical education, music and art classes over classes with less student involvement. On the other hand, the children with behavior problems did fare well during lunch hours. Particularly, child "B" demonstrated bad table manners.
Third, among the four behavior types, teachers selected over-action behavior types and aggressive behavior types as the most disruptive in class and also the most problematic in social interactions with other students. The other two types, withdrawal-anxiety and isolation behavior types did not cause any problems. Although the teachers were more concerned about the children with behavioral problems than normal children, they also stated that they attempted to treat all the students equally. The teachers counseled and guided these children based on their previous experience and knowledge. Each of the four types were treated differently. For children with aggressive behavior types, the teacher kept these students isolated from other classmates and while the children were asked to reflect upon their disruptive behavior. For children with over-active behavior types, teacher tended to ignore these students' antics and act indifferently to them. For students with withdrawal-anxiety behavior types, teachers tried to boost their confidence by praising them often in public and giving them many opportunities to talk in front of the other classmates. For children with isolation behavior types, the teacher encouraged these students to get together with other friends. When the children demonstrated extremely disruptive behavior, the teachers held phone conversations or meetings with their parents. During these meetings, the teachers informed the parents of their child's behaviors and discussed in depth for solutions that could be implemented at after school. When the teachers had difficulties coming up with remedies for correcting problems in behavior, they had private conversations with the children. They also consulted other teachers for various solutions. When the children continuously repeated disruptive behaviors, the teachers carefully would advice the parents to seek professional help. However, teachers are not satisfied with guiding problem behavior children because of lack of special knowledge of guidance and time to guide.
Consequently, It appears that it is necessary to consider a counterplan for teaching problem children effectively in many directions. Putting these various research results together, school is the place where children spent a lot of time. Especially as children have more physical activity and interaction with other children in physical class than any other classes, physical education class is the place where problem behaviors often happen.
Since such problem behaviors hinder intellectual, emotional and physical development of children seriously and exert a bad influence on the class as a whole, teachers must instruct problem behavior children with suitable methods and study how to cope with the problem behavior through knowledge of problem behavior.;본 연구의 목적은 초등학교 체육수업에서 문제행동을 보이는 아동의 문제행동 유형과 문제행동에 영향을 미치는 요인을 다각도로 분석하고, 교사들이 문제행동 아동을 어떻게 지도하고 있는지를 알아보고 이를 토대로 문제행동 지도의 대책을 마련하는데 필요한 기초자료를 제공하는데 있다. 이러한 연구 목적을 달성하기 위하여 2001년 00초등학교 3,4학년 4명을 연구대상으로 선정하였으며, 각각의 수업을 8회에 걸쳐 참여관찰을 실시하였고, 심층면담으로 아동면담, 교사면담, 문제행동 아동의 부모면담을 통하여 자료를 수집하였다. 이와 같이 수집된 자료는 항시비교법을 이용하여 분석하였으며, 구성원간 검토와 동료간 협의, 다각도 분석법을 이용하여 자료의 신뢰성을 높였다.
이러한 연구과정을 통하여 얻어진 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 연구대상 아동의 체육수업을 관찰·분석하여 특징적으로 나타나는 문제행동을 A학생은 '공격행동' 아동, B학생은 '과잉행동' 아동, C학생은 '위축-불안 행동' 아동, D학생은 '고립행동' 아동으로 분류하였다. 둘째, 문제행동에 영향을 미치는 요인을 개인적 요인, 부모 양육태도 요인, 교우관계 요인, 학교생활 요인으로 분석하였다. 셋째, 교사들과 면담을 통하여 가장 지도하기 힘든 아동과 문제행동 아동을 지도하는 방법에 대해 알아보았으며, 문제행동 아동의 부모와의 연계방법과 문제행동 아동에 대한 대책에 대해서도 알아보았는데 교사들은 전문지식 부족과 시간부족 등의 여러 가지 이유로 문제행동 지도에 만족하지 못하였다.
이상과 같은 결과를 종합하여 볼 때, 학교는 아동이 많은 시간을 보내는 곳이며 특히, 체육시간은 다른 시간들에 비해 넓은 공간에서 이루어지며 신체적인 활동이 왕성한 시간으로 아동들간의 상호작용이 빈번히 일어나 아동들의 문제행동을 발견하기 쉽다. 이러한 문제행동은 아동 자신의 지적, 정서적, 신체적 발달에 큰 저해를 주며 학급 전체에도 나쁜 영향을 미칠 수 있으므로 교사는 문제행동 아동을 적절한 방법으로 지도해야 하며 문제행동에 대한 전문지식을 갖고 문제행동에 대한 다각적인 방면에서의 대책을 마련해야 할 것이다.
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