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버나드 브랜든 스코트의 비유해석 방법에 대한 연구

버나드 브랜든 스코트의 비유해석 방법에 대한 연구
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대학원 기독교학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
이 논문은 예수 비유 연구에 적용된 다양한 문학 비판 이론을 살피고 그들의 문제점을 해결하기 위한 시도에서 출발하였다. 예수 비유는 복음서 전체의 맥락과 분리해서 다룰 수 있는 독특한 문학 양식이기 때문에 비유 해석에 문학 이론을 적용하는 것은 타당하다. 그러나 기존의 문학비판 이론은 예수 비유가 지닌 고유한 메시지를 풀어내기 위해 문학 이론을 적용하기보다는 특정 문학이론의 틀에 맞추어 예수 비유를 재단하는 문제점을 가지고 있었다. 따라서 이 이론들은 예수 비유에 대한 올바른 문학적 이해를 저해하고, 신학적 의미도 희석시키게 되었다. 이에 반해 버나드 스코트는(Bernard Scott) 여러 문학 이론들을 도구적으로 잘 사용하여 비유의 역사적, 신학적 함의들을 제대로 파악하게 해주었다. 따라서 이 연구는 스코트의 연구 방식을 설명하고 그 이론을 지지하여 예수 비유해석에서 드러난 문학적 적용의 문제점들을 해결하고자 했다. 이 논문은 모두 5장으로 구성되었다. 서론에 이어 2장에서는 비유해석의 역사를 살폈다. 특히 문학 비판을 중점적으로 다루었으며, 각 이론이 가진 문제의 근거를 그 문학적 적용에서 찾아보았다. 3장은 스코트가 비유해석에 적용한 문학 이론들이 비유해석에 적합하게 사용되었는가 그 타당성을 점검하고, 설명하였다. 그리고 스코트가 비유 해석에 사용한 기본 개념들을 정리하고, 그 방법론을 따라 실제 비유를 해석해 보았다. 4장의 평가에 이어 5장은 이 논문의 결론이다.;The study of Jesus parables has been developed since julicher published Die Gleichnisreden Jesu in 1888. He liberated the Jesus' parables from the partial dominion of allegorical interpretation. Actually he contributed to establish the study of the Jesus parables as a discipline. Since he had insisted the parable as similitude, he could enable his successors to approach to a access the Jesus parables in literary criticism. The interpretation of Jesus parables can be divided into two main streams, one is historical criticism and the other is literary criticism. This thesis aimed to search for the proper method for the interpretation of Jesus parable in the boundary of literary criticism. Basically, it is relevant to apply literary criticism into studying Jesus parables, because they are actually literary works which can be understood apart from the context of the Synoptic Gospels. But we should consider the fact that Jesus parables are also deeply connected with historical facts related to historical Jesus and the situation of Primitive Church, even though we admit that the parables are literary works. The study of Jesus parable in literary criticism, however, rather biased focusing on the literary values and just regarded parables as literary works ignoring the historical aspect of parables. Even some scholars in literary criticism defined the parable as a self-satisfied and fully meaningful object, without regarding historical context. Many of scholars in literary criticism have insisted that Jesus parables should be metaphor, and the language of Jesus parable itself has the power to create the reality and to invoke the significance in reader's mind. But those kinds of apprehensions loosened the link between parable and historical Jesus, consequently which resulted in the loss of theological meanings contained in Jesus parables. These problems revealed the limit of the literary criticism applied to Jesus parables, which requested the alternative method to interpret them in literary criticism. Therefore, I suggest the theory of Bernard Scott's interpretation of Jesus parables to settle above problems. Different from other scholars, he started his study from Jewish tradition. He defined Jesus parable as mashal that employs a short narrative fiction to refer the symbol, kingdom of God. He explained this conception with the help of various tools from other disciplines beyond theology. He applied narrative structure theory and reader response criticism, and also anthropology and Jewish traditions to interpret Jesus parable. Not depending on a specific theory of literary criticism, he used the various theories as their right ways. For example, he reconstructed the original structure of parables with the help of narrative structure theory, and the meaning of them with the help of the reader response criticism. Essentially, he contributed to recover the relationship between parables and historical Jesus, and also gave access to the readers of today to get the meaning of parable for reflecting their situation. In conclusion, It can be said that he could overcome the old limit of the literary criticism. I organized this thesis in 5 chapters. After the introduction, I described the history of interpretation of Jesus parable focusing on the literary criticism in second chapter. In next chapter, I explained the definition of Jesus parable of Bernard Scott and also pointed out the relevancy of applied tools in his study. Then I did exegesis under his instructions. I chose three parables, Good Samaritan, prodigal Son, and Mustard Seed. The forth chapter was for the evaluation, succeeding conclusion in fifth chapter.
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