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黃遵憲의 東아시아 認識

黃遵憲의 東아시아 認識
Other Titles
Huang Tsun-hsien's Analogy of East Asia : With emphasis on Japan and Korea
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The Ching dynasty, after the Opium War, had a new awareness of the modernized West moving out of the Sino-Centered world view. Around that time, Western-inclined officials, including Li Hung-Chang, focused their attention on introducing the occidental military industry and scientific technology as a first step towards self-strengthening through modernization of industry. Hwang Tsun-hsien, as a pioneer counselor (參贊官), experienced newly rising Japan between 1877 and 1882. Japan, at that time, was already beginning to reap the fruits of the modernization efforts which followed Meiji Restoration. They changed extensiveIy in many fields including the political system, religion, ethics and social morals. Hwang Tsun-hsien had a different view from other western-inclined bureaucrats. Unlike those who stressed strengthening of national Power through modernizing military facilities, he inisted on the need for social reform This paper is intended to examine the progressive view of social reform offered to the Ching dynasty by Hwang, Tsun-hsien for the Chinese society. This study will examine Treatises on Japan (日本國志,1887) and Korean Strategy (朝鮮策略,1880). Hwang, Tsun-hsien it is based on his ideas of social reform and draws on his own experience as a residing diplomat in Japan. Treatises on Japan on the other hand intended to promote modernization reform in China but introduced a comparative view between China and Japan as a model nation. Korean Strategy proposed a strategy for strengthening China by way of controlling Korean policy toward Russia in light of his contemporary international political conviction. Hwang's proposal exerted a considerable influence on the Ching dynasty policy towards Korea as well as other nations. The views expounded in Hwang Tsun-hsien's writings are those which emphasis the urgency of extensive reform in government finance, educational system and social structure in order to shake off the sluggishness of the Chinese society. Hwang's reforatory views on social structure made him the founder of the political reform movement. He was far ahead of his time in the 1880's. For all his ideas on 1imited Chinese social rcform, to westernization, the Slogan of Chinese Values and western technology (中體西用), had considerable impact on China's modernization reform movement. Even though his ideas were not fully reflected in the actual policy making, toward the end of the Ching dynasty, it had a significant impact.;淸朝는 점차로 阿片戰爭이후 傳統的인 中華意識에서 脫皮하여 近代化된 西洋을 새로히 認識하게 되었다. 이 當時 李鴻章을 비롯한 洋務派官僚들은 富國强兵의 根本策으로서 西洋의 軍事工業, 科學技術의 導入에 힘쓰고 近代工業을 일으키는 이른바 洋務運動을 推進하고 있었다. 黃遵憲은 初代駐日參贊官으로서 1877年부터 l881年까지 約4年間 새로 興起하는 日本社會를 體驗한다. 當時의 日本은 明治維新을 契機로 삼아 西洋의 政治度制, 宗敎, 倫理, 道德을 受容하여 近代化의 實效를 거두고 있었다. 그 實狀을 洋務派 官僚들보다 빨리 體驗한 黃遵憲은 西洋의 軍事的超術 導入에만 치우쳤던 洋務派官僚들과는 다른 見解를 가지고 社會改革도 主張하였다. 淸末社會의 改革을 主張하는 先進的인 黃遵憲의 見解를 考察하는 것이 本硏究의 目的이다. 먼저 黃遵憲의 先進的 對外認識이 形成되는 過程과 그의 駐日外交 活動을 살펴보았다. 黃遵憲은 駐日外交官으로 活動하는 동안에 얻은 知識을 바탕으로 「日本國志」 (1887年完咸)와 「朝鮮策略」 (1880年完成)을 著述하였다. 「日本國志」는 當時 日本의 實情을 紹介하고 中國의 現實과 比較하여 近代的改革을 捉進하려는 것이었다. 한편 「朝鮮策略」은 當時의 朝鮮을 둘러 싼 國際情勢에 비추어 朝鮮의 對露政策으로써 自强을 圖謀할 것을 主張하였다. 그 主張은 淸의 對朝鮮 政策 및 朝鮮의 對外政策에 큰 影響을 미치게 된다. 黃遵憲의 著述에 나타난 意見中에는 中國의 沈滯된 現況을 脫皮하기 위하여는 國家財政, 敎育制度, 社會組織에 이르기까지 廣範한 改革이 必要하다는 것을 力說하고 있다. 洋務運動이 展開되던 1880年代에 黃遵憲이 洋務派의 意見보다 한발 앞서 制度改革의 主張을 提示한 것은 變法論의 先遵的 地位를 지닌것이라고 볼 수 있다. 그의 改革意見이 中體西用的인 限界를 가졌으며 또 淸末의 政策에 具體的으로 適用 實施되지는 못하였으나 그 以後 中國의 近代的 改革을 하는데 크게 공헌한 것으로 보아야 한다는 사실을 확인하게 되었다.
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