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알렉시스 드 또끄빌과 7월왕정

알렉시스 드 또끄빌과 7월왕정
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Alexis de Tocqueville and the July Monarchy
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
이 論文의 目的은 자유주의 귀족인 Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)의 프랑스 7월왕정 사회에 대한 기본적인 視角을 통하여 그의 自由가 지닌 실체를 규명하고자 하는 데 있다. 자유주의 혁명인 1830년의 7월혁명으로 성립된 7월왕정 사회에서 Tocqueville은 1839년부터 1848년 2월혁명 이전까지 야당 국회의원 활동을 하였다. 그러나 부르조아지를 그 주요 지지 세력으로 하고 있던 당시의 의회 세계에서 Tocqueville은 그들의 배타적인 이기심, 물질주의 향락에의 추구와 더불어 도덕적인 부패와 정치적인 무관심으로 일관된 정치적 도덕성의 타락을 목격하였다. 그는 부르조아지 사회가 보여 주는 가장 비속한 면모를 7월왕정기의 의회 현장을 통해 체험하고, 그에 대한 지독한 환멸감과 함께 프랑스 사회속에서 상실되어가는 진정한 자유의 정신을 개탄하였다. F.Guizot와 A. Thiers등의 자유주의자들도 그에게는 단지 부르조아지의 경제적 이익만을 추구하고 그들 중심의 자유만을 옹호하려는 데만 급급한 기회주의자들일 뿐이었다. 그가 본 7월왕정은 결국 그 자체에 또 하나의 혁명을 내포하고 있는, 잠정적인 의미에서의 "중간제급의 승리"였던 것이다. 유수한 귀족 가문의 한 후예였고 '본능적으로 귀족'이었던 Tocquevill은 그의 도덕적, 종교적인 관점에서 당 시대의 자유주의자들과는 다른 독특한 자유관을 보유하고 있었다. 따라서 7월왕정기에 대한 그의 진단을 통해서 우리는 '새로운 종류의 자유주의자'로서의 또끄빌의 참모습을 인식할 수 있다.;This thesis focuses on the nature of Alexis do Tocqueville's liberalism and his basic attitude towards the July Monarchy in France. He was a member of the Chamber of Deputies from 1839 to 1848 during the July Monarchy. In the parliamentary politics of this time, one was completely ineffective unless one sided either with francois Guizot, who defended the status quo, or with Adolphe Thiers, who led an opposition with only a program for individual ambition, but not for effective reform. But Tocqueville tried to remain an independent member of the Chamber of Deputies. He associated himself with the left opposition to Guizot, he attempted to form his own opposition, and tried to separate Odilon Barrot from Thiers with the hope thar Barrot would provide an effective alternative. His efforts, however, proved futile. As we know, the nature of the July Monarchy can be characterized as the bourgeois government. Tocqueville had a very serious disenchantment about such bourgeoisie society. He complained of a widespread indifference to all the ideas that could stir society, because everyone was focusing more and more on individual interest. Gradually, the people of France had come to regard politics with indifference because they saw politics as only a game in which each person seeks only to win. In short, he despaired of the fact that people of France had withdrawn from politics and embraced apathy. And the political leaders of the July Monarchy had no use, for a political principles but regarded politics as an investment for only increasing one's personal and material self-interest. So, Tocqueville blamed an acquisitive ethic of the day, that is, an ethic of self-interest and egoism, characteristic of the middle class in the power. In his view, the middle class had no wish for great accomplishment, but sought only to satisfy people with material enjoyments and small pleasures. Tocqueville portrayed the bourgeoisie under the July Monarchy as the most selfish and grasping of plutocracies, the one which treated government like a private business, and he regarded the middle class as no more than a new, corrupt, and vulgar aristocracy. Primarily, he wished the combination of two elements morality and religion in the political world. And he also acknowledged himself "an aristocrat by instinct," and "a liberal of a new kind." His basic attitude towards the bourgeois society differentiated him from other contemporary liberals, such as Benjamin Constant, or Guizot and others. At this point, we can perceive the genuine looks of his own neo-aristocratic liberalism. But, far more studies should be done for this subject with many concerns.
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