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음악심리치료가 학습부진아의 학습동기에 미치는 효과

음악심리치료가 학습부진아의 학습동기에 미치는 효과
Other Titles
On How Music Psychotherapy Approach Can Improve Motivation for Learning for Underachiever
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교육대학원 음악치료교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
This study aims to identify the effect of music psychotherapy on motivation for learning in the underachiever. With this aim, the study offered a music psychotherapy program I devised on the basis of existing research, targeting nine students in the 5th grades in the elementary school, who were selected as underachievers, and intended to discover how music psychotherapy affected their motivation for learning. In order to discover the effect of music psychotherapy on motivation for learning in underachievers, the study divided the nine children into two groups and placed four children in a test group and five children in a control group. After conducting a pre-test, the study performed music psychotherapy on the four children in the test group for about 12 weeks, twice a week, totaling 18 sessions. The music psychotherapy program was composed of individuals and groups, and it was conducted in initial two sessions by an individual and 16 sessions by a group. Each session was composed of 30 minutes with an individual, and 70 minutes in a group, respectively. Then, the study conducted a post-test with the nine children. The music psychotherapy program in this study was classified into five steps including the creation of relationships, recognition of problems, self-exploration, self-discovery, and self-inflation. In the first step, this program was introduced and these children were made to formulate a positive therapeutic relationship between members and the therapist. In the second step, members were encouraged to perceive emotional and internal issues by re-experiencing emotions about a psychological topic concerned with learning through music. In the third step, the emotional and internal issues of client ego were groped for, and the emotions they experienced and confirmed were reflected and through a song or by making improvisation to give an opportunity for self-expression which exposed their negative emotions. Through this process, the children were allowed to acquire true insight by questing psychological resources. In the fourth step, the clients themselves were made to reinforce insight through music and reflect it in a positive way, which induced them to accept themselves and to establish an affirmative academic self-image. In the fifth step, the motivation for learning was prompted and improved by setting up a role model and a goal, in detail. Each session began with a greeting song and proceeded with activities in accordance with a topic by session, and after the musical activity, impressions and opinions in a lingual way are exchanged and closed the session with a closing song. This study employed school learning motivation scale by Kim Yong Rae (2000) for measuring the effect of musical psychotherapy on the subject’s motivation for learning. Quantitative data measured in pre-and-post tests were experimental group and control group were verified through Mann-Whitney's U-test, and the effects of the therapy were analyzed through Wilcoxon's sign rank test, and the study qualitatively described phased lingual responses related to motivation for learning in the test group by each subject per session and analyzed qualitative data. The analysis results in this study may be summarized as follows. First, music psychotherapy was shown to be effective for improving all types of motivation for learning in underachievers. The result was, the experimental group showed difference compared to the control group(P<.001). Second, When Experimental group looking at motivation for learning in four sub-areas, class motivation, intrinsic motivation, continuing motivation and extrinsic motivation were shown to be statistically significant(P<.1). Finally, as a result of examining lingual responses related to motivation for learning the subject experienced, through a qualitative analysis per session of music psychotherapy for the subject in the test group, it was found that there was a positive change in improving their motivation for learning. The above results prove that music psychotherapy was effective for enhancing motivation for learning in underachievers. Accordingly, this study implies that this therapy may be utilized as a psychotherapeutic tool for improving motivation for learning in underachievers.;본 연구의 목적은 음악심리치료가 학습부진아의 학습동기에 미치는 효과를 규명하는 것이며, 이를 위해 학습부진아로 선정된 초등학교 5학년 연구대상 9명에게 연구자가 선행연구를 바탕으로 고안한 음악심리치료 프로그램을 제공하여 음악심리치료가 학습동기에 어떠한 효과를 나타내는지 살펴보고자 하였다. 본 연구는 학습부진아에게 음악심리치료를 실시하였을 때 학습동기에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위해 9명의 대상자들을 각각 4명의 실험집단과 5명의 통제집단으로 구분하고, 사전검사를 실시한 후, 실험집단에 속한 4명의 대상자에게 약 11주 동안 주 2회씩 총 18회기의 음악심리치료를 실시하였다. 음악심리치료 프로그램은 개별과 그룹으로 구성하고 초기 2회기의 개별 세션과 16회기의 그룹 세션으로 진행하였다. 한 회기는 각각 개별 30분, 그룹 70분으로 구성하였다. 그리고 대상자들에게 사후 검사를 실시하였다. 본 연구에서는 음악심리치료가 대상자의 학습동기에 미치는 효과를 측정하기 위하여 김용래(2000)의 학교학습동기척도를 사용하였다. 집단 간의 동질성 비교를 위해 집단 간 사전점수에 대해 Mann-Whitney U 검증을 실시하였고, 학습동기척도의 하위영역별로 실험집단 대상자들의 사전·사후 점수결과와 평균에 대한 Wilcoxon 검정을 실시하여 비교 분석하였으며, 집단 간의 동질성 비교를 위해 집단 간 사후점수에 대해 Mann-Whitney U 검증을 실시하였다. 그리고 실험집단 대상자들의 학습동기와 관련된 단계적 언어적 반응을 회기별 학습동기척도 하위요인인 수업동기, 본질(내적)동기, 계속동기, 비본질(외적)동기로 범주화하여 각 대상자 별로 내용 분석하였다. 본 연구의 분석결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 음악심리치료 실시 후 실험집단과 통제집단 간의 전체 학습동기 평균 점수는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(p<.001). 둘째, 실험집단의 학습동기척도 하위영역별 사전·사후 점수를 비교하였을 때 수업동기, 본질(내적)동기, 계속동기, 비본질(외적)동기 모두 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(p<.1). 셋째, 실험집단 대상자의 음악심리치료 프로그램 회기별 내용 분석을 통해 학습동기와 관련된 언어적 반응들을 구체적으로 살펴 본 결과 학습동기 향상에 긍정적인 변화가 있었음을 확인할 수 있었다. 이상의 연구결과들은 음악심리치료가 학습부진아의 학습동기를 향상시키는데 효과적임을 증명해준다. 따라서 본 연구는 음악심리치료가 학교현장에서 학습부진아의 학습동기를 향상시키기 위한 심리치료적 도구로서 활용될 수 있음을 시사한다.
☞ 이 논문은 저자가 원문공개에 동의하지 않은 논문으로, 도서관 내에서만 열람이 가능하며, 인쇄 및 저장은 불가합니다.
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