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Franz Kafka 문학에 나타난 인간의 소외

Franz Kafka 문학에 나타난 인간의 소외
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교육대학원 어학교육전공독일어교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Extreme developments in natural science have made phenomeon as well as human beings systematic, and the social power controlling the everyday life of a human being has, thus, induced the human being into self-estrangement. One of the writers who declared this situation of alienation is Franz Kafka. As one of the great metaphysical writers of the first half of the 20th cencury he extended the ultimate ethics with his unique intelligence constantly in quest of profound trith in the human spirit and using modernist's spiritual emergency; which religion, moral, philosophy, and politics could not cope with. Therefore, his works represent profound metaphysics. Franz Kafka's literature reflects the loss of a human being and the extinction from the outside, the discomfort, and the agony of modernist who wander from place to place in frustration. His world of literature can be called 'solitude of modernist' which places it in an extreme situation; against romanticism and the morality of civil society, either the solitude present here short piece "Die Verwandlung" shows us frankly realistic discomfort and the contraction of existence of a modernist by way of its hero, Gregor Samsa. What Gregor Samsa, being a coleopteron, felt, while living, was that individual existence was solitary and there was no need to communicate with human beings. He was disserted by his family and neighbors. He, as a wicked coleopteron, loses human being, is placed in an environment that nobody can understand, and is treated as one who interrupts or as an unnecessary being. Asa result, he loses his world and lives on without any exit and assistance. Gregor Samsa, however, tries to become a number of his family and society. Here we can recognize Franz Kafka's different a alienation. His heros have desire to become members as an outsider who tries to belong to his family and society. "Die Verwandlung" has a personalized hero, Gregor Samsa, who is described with symbolic techniques and thought him comfort, agony, depair, delusion of persecution, and self estrangement are described frankly. Gregor Samsa's discomfort and agony is that of modernist.;F. Kafka는 自然가운데 태어난 人間이 自然과의 原初的 調和를 喪失함으로써 직면하게 되는 지극히 불안정한 人間的 狀況과 이 不安定한 狀態를 벗어나려는 人間의 內的 苦閟을 인식하고 있었다. 그것은 이른바 <人間의 疎外意識>으로써 「Die Verwalndlung - 變身」의 Theme이다. F. Kafka는 主人公 Gregor Samsa의 疎外現象을 通해서 人間의 직접적인 生活現實과 存在의 問題를 대두시키고 있다. 허위와 不信에 찬 日常世界에 對해서 不安과 嫌惡感을 느낀 主人公은 그 日常世界 속에서 自身의 自我를 喪失하고 日常人으로 퇴락해 있는 自身을 認識함으로써 <自己疏外感>으로 번민한다. 그는 말살되어 가는 自我를 되찾고져 하는 所望 속에서 <自己폐쇄>상태, 즉 변신, 이라는 극한 狀況에 부딪힌다. 그러나 이 같은 自己폐쇄, 즉 變身은 外部世界로부터 孤立, 즉 疎外를 초래하게 된다. 한 人間이 自身이 소속된 日常世界를 벗어남으로써 그 世界로부터 완전히 폐쇄당하는 이 疎外現象은 外部의 모든 現實로부터 孤立된 人間의 狀況 一人間과 人間, 世界와 人間과의 理解가 단절된 - 이 實存하는 人間에게 얼마나 무서운 孤獨과 絶望을 가져오는 가를 보여준다. 그래서 주인공 Gregor가 반복되는 좌절과 막연한 希望 속에서 孤立을 벗어나 日常世界에 소속하려고 끊임없이 기우리는 노력에서 不條理한 人間의 存在의 모순이 나타나 있음을 볼 수 있다. 이것이 F. Kafka의 文學世界이다.
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