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Sound Changes at Morphemic Boundaries
- Sound Changes at Morphemic Boundaries
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- 교육대학원 영어교육전공
- Sound Changes; Morphemic Boundaries; Pedagogical Analysis
- The Graduate School of Ewha Womans University
- English consonant sequences at morphemic boundaries are much more complex than Korean. Moreover, the permissible combinations of consonants at morphemic boundaries are quite different from each other.
English VC + CV
VCC + CCV
VCCC + CCCV
Korean VC + CV only.
One can suppose immediately that Korean students must have a great difficulty with pronouncing English consonant sequences. Moreover, in the pattern of VC + CV, the Korean has more restrictions in the permissible combinations of consonants than English as Ⅰ explained in Chapter Ⅱ.
English VC + CV : 24 x 22 = 528
Korean VC + CV : ( 7 x 19) - 20 = 113
In Chapter Ⅳ, I predicted difficulties and mistakes of the Korean in the light of contrastive analysis. In Chapter Ⅴ, the experiment was conducted to prove the hypotheses. In the following part of this section, I would like to show whether the experiment supports the hypotheses which are based on the contrastive analysis and the predictions thereof.
The types of mispronunciations in consonant sequences at morphemic boundaries were classified into two groups is this paper : One is in line with the Korean assimilations, and the other is according to the lack of sound patterns.
1. The English consonant sequences which are lacking in Korean are substituted by similar sound patterns of Korean. Those substituted sound patterns usually have intervened /□/, /i/, or /y/ between consonants.
2. If the sequences are lacking in Korean and there are not the similar sound patterns which can be substituted for the sequences, only /□/ is intervened between the consonants.
3. The mispronunciations of /-cˇ, jˇ, s + other consonants/ occur with a higher frequency than /-s + other consonants/ of the split use of Korean /cˇ/ for English /cˇ/ and /jˇ/, and Korean /s/ for English /s/ and /sˇ/.
M. Pro = Mispronunciations
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4. There are seven sequences which are mi5prono once due to Korean assimilations. They are /-pm-/, /-pn-/, /-tm-/, /-tn-/, /-km-/, /-kn-/, and /-ln-/.
5. There are other variations, that is, to put /+/ in each morpheme in order to prevent them from being mispronounced. The open juncture inserted by the Korean has a little longer break than that of English.
6. In Korean assimilations, the sequences of /-ml-/, /-nl-/, and /-□l-/ are changed to /-mn-/, /-ll-/, and /-□n-/ respectively. But they are not changed according to the process of Korean assimilations. They are replaced by /-mr-/, /-nr-/, and /-□r-/ in the English pronunciation of the Korean, because of the split use of Korean /l/ for English /l/, and /r/.
7. There are other sequences which raise the difficulties of pronunciation due to the split use of Korean /l/ for English /l/ and /r/ : /-pl-/, /-tl-/, /-kl-/, /-sl-/, /cˇl-/ and /-jˇl-/.
From the results shown above, one can deduce that the consonant sequences of English at morphemic boundaries form really heavy problems to the Korean. The Korean makes not only mistakes in pronunciations of them, but also pronounce the sequences, intervening a somewhat longer break between them in order to prevent them from being mispronounced.
I have figured that the percentage of mispronunciations due to the Korean assimilations is 23%; that of mispronunciations due to substitution of Korean sound patterns, 34% by the high school and college students.
We come to the conclusions that the mispronnciations by the lack of sound patterns in Korean are heavier than those by the Korean assimilative habits. Put differently, the pronunciation of the arrangements /-VCCCV-/ and /-VCCCCV-/ are more difficult than /-VCCV-/ to the Korean, because the arrangement /-VCCV/ is the only permissible sequence in Korean, whereas /-VCCCV-/, /-VCCCCV-/, /-VCCCCCV-/, or /-VCCCCCCV-/, /-VCCCCCCCV-/ are permissible only in English and not in Korean. It can be deduced that the more consonants the sequence contains, the heavier problems Korean students have in pronunciation.
Even in the sequence like /-VCCV-/, however, if it is composed of the consonants which are lacking in Korean, it constitutes a heavy linguastic difficulty than one composed of the similar consonants.
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