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朝鮮時代 望瓦의 造形性에 관한 考察

朝鮮時代 望瓦의 造形性에 관한 考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Figurativeness of the Mangwha as a Tile-Form in the Age of Chosun : On the Basis of Researches into the Palaces
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산업미술대학원 산업미술학과요업디자인전공
이화여자대학교 산업미술대학원
Though a main stream of the general trends in our modern ceramic designs is gradually being inclined to pay its interests in the spheres of socalled Environmental Ceramic Designs or Ceramic Carving & Modelling, and to which in relation many works are produced widely and distinctly, there exists also in parallel a general opinion that the fountain-head of this sorts of creative works, experience tells us, is traced back along with the streams of Western ceramic designs, and, unfortunately, as for our tradition, it is conceived that there has never been such a sphere; so, it should be acknowledged that we are lacking our own foundation or base-line, or at least so we are thinking now, as long as we are related to such world of ceramic art. Then, again, if this kind of diagnosis turns upon our recent tendency in the environmental ceramic designs, it seems quite that focuses are being laid upon the traditional 'tile', and which will be employed further on as one of the subject matters worthy of praise clearly and obviously, but, in so far as the ceramic carving and modelling is dwelt upon, yet it is certainly conceived truly that it still remains as having not in any way firmly established self origination. From this viewpoint, author has dealt with our traditional tile, putting focuses on the figurativeness pertaining to the 'Mangwha' that used for the palaces in the age of Chosun, in order to contribute to the foundation and orientation of our own ceramic carving and modelling positively inasmuch as conditions are capable of persuading me of its worth or merit, for there occur no doubts in the aspects that the Mangwha is apprehended as one of the traditional hidden ceramic carvings and modellings of ours, and, incidentally, that it may be said as a three-dimentional formative creature maden of the clay and utilized for thw ooden architecture. Throughout the study, in the first place, the species of Mangwha were grasped into, and among then, such kinds as Chyidoo, Yongdoo, Tosoo and Chapsang, all of which may have the most prominent figurativeness in their aspect of symbolic forms, were selected as the materials of investigation. And, in parallel, investigations into every socio-cultural background according to each age, that is, from those on the ages of the Three Kingdoms which is supposed as that of initial stage of the said Mangwha, to those on the ages of Chosun, were conducted to show what effects those each age had made on the symbolism of Mangwha. Also, its functions according to its positions and its peculiarity that exists dependently on the architectural modes of the palaces as well as the locations of it were looked into. Finally, the formative characteristics of all the species of Mangwha were com paratively analyzed to be synthesized as an illustration. Conclusively, could be pointed is that the Mangwha has various forms and species generated from the very variety of its symbolic meanings: for example, Chyidoo, Yongdoo and Tosoo take emphasized head forms of birds, dragous and fish, and Chapsang takes mixed forms of man and animal; and that this Mangwha afforded the soft and simple roof of palaces with a nature or ornamentation: symbolic meanings and visual effects. And, from the study it seems quite clear that there will be following great difficulties in succeeding and developing the traditional Mangwha, since studies in it yet consist of a sphere unexploited, and that more depend researches on the figurativeness of Mangwha is therefore required.;우리나라 現代陶磁의 방향이 점차 「환경도예」나 「도예조소」 분야로 관심이 쏟고 있으며, 이러한 주류의 작업이 활발히 진행되고 있다. 그러나 이러한 도자의 시작을 서양의 도자흐름에 맞추고 과거 우리의 전통에서는 이런 분야가 없었던 것으로 생각하고 있어서 환경도예나 도예조소에 대한 우리 것의 확립이 안되어 있는 상황이다. 최근들어 환경도예는 우리 전통의 瓦·塼에 초점을 맞추고 이러한 방향으로 작업이 진행되고 있으나, 도예조소는 아직 우리의 것에 확립이 서있지 못한 것으로 생각된다. 조선시대 궁궐의 목조건물에 사용되었던 망와는 瓦質粘土로 제작된 입체적 조형물로써 우리 고유의 도예조소라고 말할 수 있다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 조선시대 궁궐용 망와의 조형성에 초점을 맞춰 우리의 도예조소 확립과 방향에 조금이나마 도움이 되고자 하였다. 먼저 조선시대 궁궐에서 사용한 망와중에서 입체적 조형물인 「취두」, 「용두」, 「토수」, 「잡상」을 본 연구자료로 정하고, 우리나라 망와 사용의 시작으로 추정되는 삼국시대에서부터 조선에 이르기까지 시대적·문화적 배경을 고찰하여, 망와의 상징성에 어떤 영향을 주었는지 알아보았다. 또한 망와의 배치에 따른 기능성과 궁궐 건축양식과 망와의 설치에 따른 특수성을 조사하였으며, 마지막으로 각 망와의 형태적 특징을 비교 분석하고 도표로 만들어 종합하였다. 연구결과 조선시대 궁궐용 망와는 각 부착위치에 따라, 여러 상징적 의미를 바탕으로 다양한 종류와 형태를 갖고 있으며, 이 중에서 취두, 용두, 토수는 새, 용, 물고기의 머리형으로 동물의 머리부분만을 강조하여 표현되었고, 잡상은 인물상과 함께 여러 동물의 형상을 갖고 있다. 이러한 망와는 궁궐 지붕의 부드러우면서 소박함에 상징적 의미와 시각적 효과를 주는 장식성을 부여하였다. 조선시대 궁궐용 망와에 대한 연구는 아직까지 미개척분야로 이것을 계승 발전시키는데 많은 어려운 점이 있을 것으로 보이며, 미술학적 측면에서 망와의 조형성에 대한 더 깊은 연구가 필요하리라 본다.
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