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李贄와 焦횡의 學問的 交涉에 대하여

李贄와 焦횡의 學問的 交涉에 대하여
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Scholastic Relations Between Li Chih and Chiao Hung : A Study of the "Shu-ta-pien' in Fen shu
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교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
이화여자대학교 대학원
本稿는 중국의 正統性에 반기를 들었던 李贄의 기본사상인 "童心說을 같은 思想的 맥락에 있었던 초횡과의 書信 속에서 재고찰해 보려고 하는 것이다. Ⅱ章에서는 李贄의 思想的 形成過程으로서의 生涯와 그의 著述活動에 큰 영향을 주었던 당대의 博學家 초횡과의 學問的 交涉을 살펴보았다. Ⅲ章에서는 李贄와 초횡의 書翰에 나타난 核心思想으로서 道學批判과 歷史人物評價 및 그의 死生觀을 보았다. 그리고 Ⅳ章에서는 위의 Ⅲ章의 核心思想들을 李贄의 기본사상인 "童心說"에 입각해서 분석해 보았다. 本稿를 통해서 본 李贄의 "童心說"이란 王陽明의 "良知說"과 王龍溪의 "現成良知說"을 계승 발전시킨 것으로서, 朱子學이 현실을 무시한 限界性의 反向으로, 現實을 중시하고 人間의 自我意識에 의한 眞(참)의 가치성을 주장한 것이다. 따라서 李贄는 "童心說"에 입각하여 政治·社會·人物·文學등을 종래의 孔子觀에서 탈퇴한 自己主觀으로 평가하였다. 이상과 같이 살펴봄으로서 李贄의 기본사상인 "童心說"은 당시의 傳統的 思想과는 정면으로 對立되는 한 時代의 경이할 만한 사상으로서 모든 사물을 새로운 시각으로 조명해 보았다는데 그 의의가 크다고 할 수 있다.;This thesis re-examines selected aspects of the thought of the Chinese philosopher Li Chih, an iconoclast who rebelled an iconoclast who rebelled against the intellectual orthodoxy of his age. The special focus is upon Li's fundamental concept of "infant's heart"( 童心 ) as elucidated in his correspondence with a prominent member of his intellectual camp, Chiao Hung. The second chapter concerns itself with the scholarly interaction between Li Chih and Chiao Hung, who as one of the most learned men of his time exerted great influence upon Li, both in his development as a thinker and in his literary pursuits. The third chapter examines the correspondence exchanged between Li and Chiao, finding its intellectual core in their various criticisms of Neo-Confucianism, their evaluations of historical figures, and in their views on life and death. The fourth chapter attempts an analysis of this intellectual core, finding it to be ultimately based upon Li Chih's notion of "infant's heart." As elaborated in this thesis, the concept of "infant's heart" is seen to be an intellectual descendant of both Wang Yang-ming's idea of "innate knowledge" ( 良知 ) and Wang Yung-c'hi's concept of "innate knowledge at hand" ( 現成良知 ) but represents an advance upon both : it is an espousal of the value of truth on the part of human self-consciousness and stresses the importance of the real, the actual over against the limitations created by the Neo-Confuciansim of Chu Hsi( 朱熹 ), which denigrates such concerns. Accordingly, Li Chih , building upon his idea of "infant's heart", attained a personal perspective, one which was a radical departure from the former Confucian world-view, and with it he surveyed and passed judgement upon the Chinese cultural realm--its politics, society, historical figures and literature. Hence, the significance of Li Chih's extraordinary idea of "infant's heart" may be termed great: through its use he directly confronted orthodoxy and illuminated with a fresh perspective the manifold objets under his intellectual purview.
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