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CAT를 通해 본 身體 障碍兒의 性格 特性에 關한 硏究

CAT를 通해 본 身體 障碍兒의 性格 特性에 關한 硏究
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육심리분야
CAT신체 장애아성격인성
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
本 硏究는 一般 國民學校에 在學하는 身體 障碍兒를 肢體不自由兒와 慢性疾患 保有兒로 分類하고 그들의 主要 欲求, 環境에 대한 槪念, 重要한 葛薦, 不安의 性質, 主要 防禦機制, 超自我의 巖格性 등을 비교 분석함으로써 身 碍兒들이 가지고 있는 性格的 特性과 心理的 문제점을 규명하여, 身 障碍兒의 人性指導 및 不適應 行動指導에 도움을 주고자 함이 그 目的이다. 本 硏究의 對象으로 서울 市內 N國民學校와 S國民學校에 在學하는 3·4·5·6학년 학생 中 正常兒 20名, 身體 障碍兒 20名(肢體不自由兒 10名, 慢性疾患 保有兒 10名)을 선정하여 이화여자대학교의 CAT(韓國版 兒童用 會畵 統覺 檢査)를 실시하였다. L. Bellak의 해석 방법에 의해 분석하여 얻어낸 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. '主人公의 主要 欲求'에 있어서, 正常兒 集團에서는 우월, 공격, 성취의 욕구가 강한 反面, 身體 障碍兒 集團은 食餌, 救助, 類親 비하의 欲求가 강하며 肢體不自由兒 集團이 慢性疾患 保有兒 集團보다 유친의 欲求가 강한 반면, 慢性疾患 保有兒 集團은 食餌의 欲求가 강하다. 2. '環境에 對한 槪念'에 있어서는, 身體 障碍兒 集團이 공격, 거절, 신체적 손상, 신체적 위험에서 압력을 느끼고 있다. 3. '重要한 慕薦'에 있어서는, 身體 障碍兒 集團이 신체적 열등과 사회적 열등에서 葛藤을 겪고 있으며, 또한 肢體不自由兒 集團은 신체적 열등에서, 愼性疾患 保有兒 集團은 자율-복종에서 높은 반응을 보이고 있다. 4. '不安의 性質'에 있어서는, 身體 障碍兒 集團이 버림받음, 물질적 상실, 질병, 애정결핍, 무력함, 죽음, 신체적 상해에 대해 더 많은 不安을 느끼고 있으며 또 慢性疾患 保有兒 集團에 비해 肢體不自由兒 集團이 무력함 때문에 더 많은 不安을 느끼고 있다. 5. '主要 防禦機制'에 있어서는, 身體 障碍兒 集團이 正常兒 集團에 비해 거부, 보상, 퇴행의 防禦機制를 많이 사용하며 또한 正常兒 集團은 반동형성의 防禦機制를 많이 사용하고 있다. 肢體不自由兒 集團은 漫性疾患 保有兒 集團에 비해 퇴행의 防禦機制를 많이 사용하고 있다. 6. '超自我의 嚴格性'에 있어서는, 身體 障碍兒 集團에 비해 正常兒 集團의 超自我가 더 嚴格하다.;The purpose of this study is to give assistance in the education of physically handicapped children's personalities and maladjustive behaviors through the examination of personality characteristics and psychological problems of them. With them being classified info crippled children group and chronic diseased children group, their main needs, conceptions of the environment, significant conflicts, nature of anxieties, main defense mechanisms, and esverity of superego were compared and analized. The subjects of this study composed of twenty nomal children and twenty physically handichpped children(ten crippled children and ten chronic diseased children) selected among the third, fourth, fifth, and the sixth grade children belonging to the Seoul N and S elementaty schools. And the CAT of Ewha Womans University(Korean Childrens Apperception Test) was experimented to them. The results of the analysis by L. Bellak's interpretative method are as follows. 1. In 'The Main Needs', physically handicapped group has intense feeling in the desire of eating, being aided, getting together, and inferior mind. In the comparison between crippled group and chronic diseased guoup, the former is stronger in the desire of getting together, while the latter in that of eating. 2. In 'The Conception of the Environment', physically handicapped group showed high degrees in the attack, refusal, the damage of body, and the danger of body, while normal group in supiority. 3. In 'The Significant Cinflicts', physically handicapped group showed high responses in the physical and social inferiority. Chronic diseased group revealed intense responses in the relastion between self - control and obey. On the other hand, crippled group has more trouble in the inferiority of body. 4. Physically handicapped group showed sensible responses in 'The Nature of Anxietied'. The kinds of anxieties are being abandoned, the loss of material, disease, the lack of love, helpless, death, and physical damage. And crippled group revealed more helplessness than chronic diseased group. 5. In 'The Main Defense Mechanism', physically handicapped group used the edfense mechanism of refusal, compensation, and regression more frequently than normal group. Normal group used the reaction formation freguentley. And Crippled group used the defense mechanism of regression freguently. 6. In 'The Seyerity of superego', normal group was more stern than physically handicapped group.
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