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은퇴촌을 위한 주거환경 디자인 과정에 관한 연구

은퇴촌을 위한 주거환경 디자인 과정에 관한 연구
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산업미술대학원 산업미술학과실내디자인전공
이화여자대학교 산업미술대학원
우리나라는 유교적 문화군에 속해 있었기 때문에 노인문제가 존재하지 않았다. 그러나 최근 사회구조가 산업화, 도시와, 핵가족 화함에 따라 노인들에 대한 가족 부양기능이 약화되게 되었고, 이로 인해 노인문제는 심각한 사회 문제로 대두되기에 이르렀다. 노인문제란 매우 포괄적인 것이어서 이것을 이해하기 위해서는 다각적 접근이 필요하다. 인구학에서는 평균 수명의 면장에 따른 노인의 수적 증대가 문제되고 있고, 핵가족에서는 가족체계 과정에서 야기되는 가족내에서의 노인문제를 야기시킨다. 사회학에서는 노인문제를하나의 사지 분재로 다루고 있고, 사회복지학에서는 그들의 결핍된 욕구 상태에 촛점을 맞추고 있다. 그리고 일반적으로 노인문제라 함은 빈곤, 질병, 고독을 의미하고, 노인문제는 역할 상실이라는 문제도 추가된다. 이러한 제반 문제들을 사실에 부응하여 실내외 건축적 입 장애서 노인문제의 현황을 파악하고 국내외의 노인시설의 현황을 분석 연구하여 보다 나은 대안 제시를 한다. 본 논문의 진행과정 및 디자인 특징을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 제1장에서는, 문제제기와 더불어 연구의 목적을 밝히고 연구대상 및 범위를 설정하였으며 연구의 진행과정과 디자인 방법을 체계화 하였다. 제2장에서는, 노인에 관련된 기존의 문헌과 자료를 고찰함으로서 본 연구의 기본 자료를 수집하고 노인의 심리적, 물리적, 사회적 특성과 국내외 양로원 환경 현황을 비교 분석하여 합리적 대안 제시를 한다. 제3장에서는, 현 노인 현황 문제를 제기하고 그 문제점을 분석한다. 제4장에서는 조사된 기존의 문헌 및 자료와 현황분석 결과 도출된 문제점을 기초로 종합 구체화 시킴으로서 유료 양로원 환경디자인의 개념적 틀을 정립하고 디자인 과정을 구체적으로 체계화 시켜 나아간다. 그 결과로서 양로원 환경의 질적 향상과 목적에 따른 합리적 양로원 환경의 조형적 모델을 제시하였다. 제5장에서는 노인 주거 환경을 위한 디자인 과정을 통하여 노인들의 건강과 생활 수준 향상에 역점을 두는 것을 고려하여 사회적, 경제적, 미적, '기능요소가 최대한 조화될 수 있도록 실내 디자인 방향을 정하였다.;A design for a living environment for the aged is described to heir Korean society resolve its problems. More exactly, this study stales that an effective policy must be implemented in the area of social welfare. The problems of the aged are the remnants of the classical family function in our country. So to solve the problems of the aged, one of the methods is the reexamination of the classical family function in home by trying politically, the other is the switchover of the policy tn share the responsibility by the nation or society in the as western style. This study on a retirement village for the. aged, is designed in to preserve the positive aspect of old age and to constitute the own cultural area which ran solve the problems of the aged. A village must be a pleasant place, which is not a hiding-place but a life creative-place, and which can be runned actually by planning in the aspect of the ecology and the characteristics of the aged. 7he problems of the aged are one of the serious problems now a days as in crease of aged population and the world. The medical services are increasing all over the world. But the counterplan to protect the aged is very urgent in our country where the facilites for the aged are largely deficienct. The facilities for -the aged must be the variety one which can be cheesed by the user as their conditions, but the object is limited in this study for the aged who are capable of payment and who are apart from their family inevitably by the industrialization, the urbanization arid the nuclear family. The point and plan of the direction of design in the architectural environment for the aged are proposed. Considering the nature of emotion which can influence the condition of the architecture. 1. The surrounding environment must be pleasant and comfortable for the aged, who are isolated from their families and societies, by planning of the recreative facilities. For example, the hobby room, the recreation room, the sports equipment, and the resting place for n birthday party are focused. A design for the resting place is cosy and bright tint, and the wall is painted in supergraphic with flowers and pictures. 2. The facilities for the aged, which can compensate the under-function from symptoms of senlity, such as the physical therapy room and rehabilitation room and athletic room are planned, and all - kinds of support appliances and equipments are arranged preferentially. 3. rho residing form is a low floored and grouped one in consider of their physical conditions and own cultural area which could be felt the homogeneity. 4. The space for enterance is the open space type with a glass door which is suitable for going and coming. A space engineering, is arranged in each room. The height of draws is 100∼150cm, not above 170cm. 5. The color is soft pastel shade, which could tranquilize psychologically, physiologicallyand mentally. Yellowish green, purple, white colors are cheesed as the calm colors that could change a atmosphere from the gloominess and dullness to the cosiness and vitality. The illumination is bright enough to help the eye disabled person, so the wall lamps are installed in a corridor besides total illumination. The indirect illumination, that can help the sleeping, is designed in the bed room. A large glass widow is the main natural lighting system, and an incandescent electric lamp is the subsidiary lighting system for a vital and dynamic atmosphere. The room temperature is kept up 23℃~25℃, with humidifier because the aged cannotcontrolthe body temperature as children. The furniture has a bright original color of wood with many drawere. The bed and chairs art designed simple and comfortable with enough cushions for sitting and leaning. The, walls of living room, kitchen and resting room are painted in strong coloring with with supergraphic which provides an animation and a dynamic atmosphere. The study is limited on the paid facilities for the aged, further studies on the varieties of public welfare facilities for the aged in the developed countries are required. So we have try the living space for the aged to be a effective and reasonable one.
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