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高學力 女性勞動에 대한 差別實態 分析과 政策的 代案에 관한 연구

高學力 女性勞動에 대한 差別實態 分析과 政策的 代案에 관한 연구
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(A) study on empirical analysis of discrimination for highly educated female and public policy
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대학원 행정학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
사회경제적인 발전은 여성의 사회참여를 증대시켜 왔지만, 대졸학력을 소유한 고등실업자가 많음은 노동시장에 내재된 성차별 현상에서 기인하는 경우가 많다. 따라서 본 연구의 목적은 고학력 여성의 노동시장에서의 지위를 살펴봄으로써 앞으로 보다 많은 여성을 활용할 수 있게 하기 위한 기초작업을 하는데 있다. 그리하여 먼저, 노동력 차별의 원인을 고용주에 의한 차별이론, 이중노동시장론, 인적자본론을 통해 살펴본다. 구체적으로 차별의 원인을 고용주에 의한 차별이론은 개인적 편견에서, 이중노동시장론은 사회제도·관습에서 찾음으로써 수요측 원인을 강조하는데 반해, 인적자본론은 개인의 생산성 차이를 제시함으로써 공급측 요인을 더 중시하고 있다. 다음은 정부의 각종 통계자료를 이용하여 노동시장에서 발생하는 차별의 유형에 따라 그 내용을 살펴보았는데, 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 여성들은 노동시장 진입시 취업기회에서 제약을 받으며 직종에 있어 남성과 구분되는 양상을 보인다. 대부분 전문직에 몰려 있고 학력 여성의 경우도, 교원 직업간호원 등에 두드러진 집중현상을 보임으로써 직종차별현상을 뒷받침 해 주고 있다. 둘째, 여성들은 대부분이 미직급 사원이며 직급사원은 같은 학력의 남성과 비교하여 극히 적어, 승진상의 차별을 받고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 마지막으로, 여성들은 같은 자격의 남성에 비해 적은 임금을 받고 있었다. 이상의 제요인들은 결국 여성의 취업을 어렵게 하고, 근속년수를 짧게 하며, 인적자본에의 투자 의욕을 낮추는 결과를 가져와 노동시장의 성차별은 악순환을 거듭하게 된다. 따라서 이를 극복하기 위해서는 노동시장의 고용관행에 대한 비판과 아울러 교육, 법제도상의 정비등 다각적인 노력이 요망되고 있다.;This paper considers the disadvantaged position women with higher education (junior college or more) in the labor market and suggests policy implications on reducing labor market discrimination. Various possible explanations exist on the inequality of treatment for females within labor market. Here, three approaches are provided for explaining sexual discrimination. The first is discrimination theory by employers, initially outlined by Becker(1957), who assumes discrimination to be merely the consequence of the tastes of people. To put it simple, employers tend to discriminate against employing females since they dislike the idea of employing women. The second is the approach initially associated with Doeringer and Piore concerning the structure of labor markets and in particular the concept of dual labor market; the promary and the secondary. The Underlying assumptions of this theory allow one to understand that women and men do not work in the same jobs. Sex discrimination occurs because females are to be confined into the secondary labor market characterized by job instability, short or nonexistence of upward mobility chain. Thirds, the human capital theory is based on the concept of human capital accumulation such as schooling and experience. A worker with human capital, regardless of sex, becomes more Productive to an employer, guaranteed higher returns and the opportunity of promotion to higher grades. Therefore, women's low wages and fewer opportunities mean their lower productivities. However, it has to be acknowledged that these approaches do not entirely explain the existing every side of the labor market dynamics. This can be proven easily when we examine several statistical data. Women experience several kinds of discrimination in the labor markets. First, women are excluded from the equal opportunity to enter into a kind of occupations or jobs. In this sense jobs in the labor market are divided by sex. Second, promotion discrimination occurs when men are preferred to women even in the same job. Third, women are less paid than men with the same productivity. On the other hand, women tend to have the lower productivity (because of lower schooling) than men. General majors of highly educated women are inappropriate to the demand-side conditions of labor markets. They usually have shorter careers or the length of services. However, women`s low productivities are not entirely regarded as women`s own problems. Women are not only excluded from primary work in the workplace and transposition but also underestimated on the efficiency rating. These discriminating conditions lower their attachment for work. Therefore, discrimination against women and their lower productivities are vicious circle. Consequently, in oder to reduce labor market discrimination and to protect women`s rights, it is necessary to correct laws and school education system as well as women`s own efforts in a way to eliminate sex discrimination in labor markets.
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