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조선 후기 왕자 관례·가례 복식 고증 연구
- 조선 후기 왕자 관례·가례 복식 고증 연구
- Other Titles
- Historical Research on the Costumes for Coming-of-Age Ceremonies and Wedding Ceremonies of Late-Joseon Dynasty Princes and Princess
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 본 연구는 조선 후기 왕자의 관례(冠禮)와 가례(嘉禮) 복식을 알아보고, 두 의식에서 착용했던 의례 복식 준비 물목의 변화와 왕실 신분에 따른 차이를 살펴보고자 하였다. 이를 바탕으로 왕자의 관례 복식과 왕자와 왕자 부인 가례의 친영 복식을 특징에 따라 구분하고, 당시의 유물과 초상화 등을 통해서 시각적으로 고증하고자 하였다. 조선은 엄격한 계급 사회이었기 때문에 의복에서도 신분의 차이가 나타났다. 왕실의 구성원인 왕자의 복식은 사대부의 복식과 차별성이 있었고, 의례의 절차 및 예복의 종류에서 왕세자와도 차등이 있었다. 왕자 복식에 대한기록은 왕과 왕세자에 비해 많지 않아, 연구가 많이 이루어지지 못하였다. 조선 전기 왕자 의례에 대한 기록은 임진왜란과 병자호란으로 인해서 소실되었으나조선 후기는 『가례등록』에 남아 있어, 이를 통해서 조선 후기 왕자의 관례 복식과 가례 복식 물목을 알 수 있다. 본 논문은 『가례등록』을 중심으로 조선 후기 왕자 복식의 특징을 알아보고, 고증을 통해서 시각적으로 왕자 의례 복식을 제시하고자 한다.
왕자의 관례와 가례는 왕자가 왕실에서 생활하는 동안 치르는 의례이다. 관례는 유교식 성인식을 의미하며, 가례는 지금의 결혼식을 뜻한다. 왕자의 관례 절차는 초가(初加), 재가(再加), 삼가(三加)의 순서로 진행되며, 의식마다 성인을 상징하는 관(冠)과 이에 맞는 의복을 갈아입는다. 왕자는 쌍동계(雙童髻)를 하고, 초출복(初出服)인 아청직령(鴉靑直領)과 조대(條帶)를 착용하고 관례 예식 장소로 이동한다. 의식은 성인이 되었음을 나타내는 상투를 올리는 것으로 시작된다. 이후 의식을 진행하는 빈(賓)이 왕자에게 초가관인 사모(紗帽)를 씌워 주고, 왕자는 초가복인 흑단령(黑團領)으로 갈아입는다. 이후 왕자는 재가복인 복두(幞頭)와 공복(公服), 삼가복인 양관(梁冠)과 조복(朝服)을 의식의 순서에 맞게 착용한다. 왕손의 관례 복식의 경우 초가복은 입자(笠子)와 도포(道袍), 재가복은 복두와 공복, 마지막 삼가복은 사모와 흑단령으로 구성되었다. 왕손은 왕자보다는 낮지만, 사대부보다는 격이 높은 복식을 입고 의식을 행하였다.
18세기 왕자 관례 복식의 종류와 준비 과정은 규장각에 소장된 『연잉군관례시등록초건(延礽君冠禮時謄錄草件)』을 통해서 알 수 있다. 이 당시 관례를 치른 연잉군(延礽君)과 연령군(延齡君)의 초가복인 흑단령에는 대군이 착용하는 금린흉배(金麟胸背)가 준비되었다. 또한 삼가복인 조복의 후수에는 금계사를 이용하여 금학을 수놓았고, 폐슬은 금계사와 채사로 장식하여 왕자 예복의 특별함을 나타낸 것으로 보인다. 이후 19세기 왕자 관례 복식은 기록과 함께 당시 사진 자료와초상화를 통해서 알 수 있다.
조선 후기 왕자는 공복인 다홍색의 초포(綃袍)와 복두를 착용하고 친영 의식을 진행하였다. 당시 왕자의 작위가 회복되지 않았던 낙선군(樂善君)은 한 단계 아래 예복인 흑단령을 입고 의식을 행하였다. 18세기부터는 관례와 가례가 함께 준비되면서 가례에 필요한 물목 중 관례를 위해 마련했던 서대(犀帶)와 관자(貫子), 토환(吐環) 등은 가례 때 새로 제작하지 않고 관례시 물건을 그대로 사용해 비용을절감하였다. 19세기에 가례를 진행한 의화군(義和君)의 가례 복식은 이전 왕자의 가례보다 의복의 종류와 수량이 다양해졌음을 「ᄇᆞᆯ긔」를 통해서 알 수 있다. 의화군은 친영 복식으로 사모와 금탁흉배가 달린 다홍색 단령이 마련되어 조선 말 왕자 가례 친영 복식의 변화를 알 수 있다. 왕자 부인의 가례 예복은 노의(露衣)와 장삼(長衫) 등의 의복이 준비되었다. 다만 왕손 부인에게는 노의만 준비되어, 모든 의식에서 노의를 착용하고 진행한 것을 알 수 있다. 19세기 의화군 부인 가례에서는 『국혼정례(國婚定例)』에서 규정한 노의와 장삼 외에도 원삼(圓衫)을 함께 준비하였다. 의화군 부인 예복은 숙의 가례와 유사하게 준비되어, 『뎡미가례시일긔』에 기록된 것과 같이 원삼을 친영 복식으로 착용한 것으로 보인다.
『국혼정례』 이후 초포는 가례시 왕자군만이 착용할 수 있는 복식으로 변화하였다. 왕자 부인의 가례 복식은 수식(首飾)을 제외한 물목이 왕녀와 동일하지만, 왕녀의 가례 물목에 사용하는 재료의 종류에서 차이가 있었다.
17~19세기 왕자 관례와 가례 복식 물목의 시대적 변화와 신분에 따른 차이에 관한 연구를 바탕으로 왕자와 왕자 부인의 의례 복식을 일러스트로 구성 및 재현하였다. 왕자의 관례 복식은 18세기 왕자, 18세기 왕손, 19세기 왕자로 구분하고, 비슷한 시기의 유물과 초상화 등을 통해서 당시의 착용 모습을 시각적으로 제시하였다. 왕자와 왕자 부인의 가례 복식은 친영 의식에 착용하는 예복을 고증하여, 17~18세기 가례 복식과 19세기 가례 복식으로 분류하여 나타냈다. 본 연구가 조선 후기 왕자 및 왕자 부인 복식에 관련된 다양한 문화 콘텐츠 제작 및 재현 행사의 기초자료로 활용되기를 기대한다. ;This study investigated the costumes for coming-of-age ceremonies[冠禮] and wedding ceremonies[嘉禮] of late-Joseon dynasty princes. Each ceremony required certain articles of clothing to be prepared, and the objective of this study was to examine the differences in the clothing based on the status of the prince and the changes in the articles of clothing over time. Each ceremonial costume types were compared to their counterparts from different eras. Coming-of-age ceremony costumes were divided into three periods, while the wedding costumes were divided into two periods. Also, the study reviewed the costumes worn by both the prince and the bride when analyzing the wedding costumes, while the scope was limited to the costumes worn during the Chinyoung(親迎) stage of the wedding. The study produced illustrations of each costumes worn during the different periods by inspecting the relics and portraits from the different periods.
The Joseon dynasty was a strict class society, and this segregation could be seen in clothing as well. These distinctions could also seen in the upper class as well. The ceremony procedure and costumes worn by the royal family and the nobility were differentiated, and even within the royal family, a distinction in procedure and costume was made between the crown prince and the prince. Compared to the archives regarding the costumes worn by the crown prince, records of costumes worn by princes are few and far between, which has contributed to a very limited number of studies done on their costumes. The study reviewed the ceremonial costumes worn by the princes in the late-Joseon dynasty and identified the characteristics of each costume type to produce images that accurately depict costumes in each of the categories. Unfortunately, the records of royal ceremonies for princes were destroyed during the “Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592[壬辰倭亂]” and “the Manchu War of 1636[丙子胡亂]” This meant that the study had to focus on the ceremonial costumes of the late-Joseon dynasty since records from this period were readily available.
The coming-of-age ceremony and the wedding ceremony were the first ceremonies for a prince while living in the palace. The coming-of-age ceremony, which was done in Confucian-style, had three stages, Choga(初加), Jaega(再加), and Samga(三加), respectively. For each of these stages, which represented adulthood, the prince wore a different costume comprised of Gwan(冠) and an attire that befit the Gwan. However, these were not the first costume that the prince wore for the ceremony. The first costume that a prince wore was a pre-ceremony costume called Chochulbohk(初出服), which was a combination of an indigo blue Jikryung[鴉靑直領] and Jodae(條帶), and the prince wore this attire with a Ssangdonggye(雙童髻) on his head. Once the prince made his way to the ceremony, the first stage, Choga, began with the prince’s hair being made into a topknot, and Choga-stage Gwan, called Samo(紗帽), being placed on his head. After this ritual, the prince changed into Heukdanryeong(黑團領), which was the clothing for Choga. The costume for Jaega was comprised of Bokdu(幞頭) and Gongbok(公服), while the Samga costumes consisted of Yanggwan(梁冠) and Jobok(朝服).
The coming-of-age ceremony costumes for the royal descendants consisted of Gat[笠子] and Dopo(道袍) for the Choga stage, Bokdu and Gongbok for Jaega, and Samo and Heukdanryeong for Samga. These costumes were a step below in quality to that of a prince, and higher in quality than the costumes used for the nobility.
The coming-of-age ceremonies for Prince Yeoning(延礽君) and Prince Yeonryeong(延齡君) were held in the 18th century, and the preparation process of the costumes could be examined by reviewing 『Yeoninggungwanraesideungrok
-chogun(延礽君冠禮時謄錄草件)』, which is housed in the royal library. The Heukdanryeong for both princes had the rank badge with gold kirin[金麟胸背], which was only worn by princes. Their costume for Jobok[Samga stage] was worn with Husu(後綬), which was embroidered with a crane using gold thread, and a Paeseul(蔽膝), which had decorations that are undistinguishable now. The records state that the Paeseul had decorations made with gold and dyed threads.
The costumes of 18th-century Joseon dynasty princes were different from other late-Joseon dynasty princes, but this was changed back in the 19th century. Photographs and portraits from 19th-century ceremonies show that the costumes changed to be in accordance with the official uniform code.
Royal weddings had several ceremonial stages, and for the Chinyoung stage, the late-Joseon dynasty princes wore a scarlet Chopo(綃袍). In the case of Prince Nakseon(樂善君), he wore a Yurok(黝綠)-colored Heukdanryeong, which was a costume for people a rank below the princes, due to his status of prince not being restored.
In the cases of Princes Yeoning and Yeonryeong, both of their weddings were held at the same time as their coming-of-age ceremonies. The list of clothing articles used in both of their ceremonies were prepared after looking into the list of articles used for the wedding ceremony of Prince Soongseon(崇善君). The articles that were already prepared for the coming-of-age ceremony were omitted from the wedding ceremony preparation list, as the same articles were used for both ceremonies. The wedding ceremony of Prince Uihwa(義和君), which was held in the 19th century, showed that wedding costumes and everyday attires of the prince became more diverse in type and number compared to past princes. The official uniform worn by Prince Uihwa had the rank badge with gold Baektaek[금탁흉배], which showed the changes in the official uniforms. Heungseon Daewongun(興宣大院君)’s magnetic color Daryeong[紫赤團領], which was worn during a similar period, also had the rank badge with a kirin. Examination of 「Balgui」(ᄇᆞᆯ긔) seems to show that the Chopo worn by princes in the 18th century also differed from Prince Uihwa’s Chinyoung costume.
The wedding costume worn by the bride of the prince was comprised Noui(露衣) and Jangsam(長衫) in addition to other articles, while the bride of a royal descendant was only provided with Noui. This is an indication that Noui was worn for all the ceremonies. For her wedding, the bride of Prince Uihwa wore Wonsam(圓衫) in addition to Noui and Jangsam that were prescribed in the 『Gukhonjeongrye(國婚定例)』 . Aside from the clothes, accessories such as Jeonhangeutchima(전행웃치마), Sseurannchima(스란치마), Seodae(犀帶), and Paeoak(佩玉) were prepared for her, as well as diverse attires that could be worn in everyday life. For the Chinyoung stage, is believed that she wore green Wonsam woven with gold, which was considered to be of higher quality than the normal Noui and Jangsam that were worn by brides of princes. After the 『Gukhonjeongrye』 was written, Chopo became a costume that only princes could wear, as even the groom of the princess(i.e. King’s son-in-law) were not provided one for their wedding. The list of articles for a princess and the bride of a prince were identical in number, but it differed in the quality of materials used. Differentiating the quality of the costume material was an effort to display the differences in status between the members of the royal family and their consort.
After consideration of the research findings, the study produced illustrations of coming-of-age ceremony costumes for princes as well as the costumes worn by the prince and his bride during the Chinyoung stage of their wedding ceremony. The coming-of-age ceremony costumes were sorted into three categories: 18th-century prince, 18th-century royal descendants, and 19th-century princes. As for the wedding ceremony costumes, it was divided into two categories: 17th-and 18th-century wedding costumes and 19th-century wedding costumes. Only the costumes from Chinyoung stage were depicted due to disputes regarding the costumes used in other stages of the wedding ceremony. Relics and portraits from those respective times were used to accurately portray the way each costumes were worn.
This study reviewed literature to examine the costumes worn by princes for their coming-of-age ceremonies and wedding ceremonies during the late-Joseon dynasty, and its changes over time. After the examination of the costumes, the study produced illustrations of the costumes worn by princes during the coming-of-age ceremonies and the costumes worn by the royal couples during the Chinyoung stage of the weddings to provide the readers with a clearer idea of the costumes. In the case of the coming-of-age ceremonies, princes in the 18th century were provided with costumes, which were different from the Joseon period dress codes. This differentiation could have been made as a way to indicate the special status of the princes. Though the coming-of-age ceremony costumes were prepared according to the code in the 19th century, the wedding ceremony costumes were prepared differently from precedent weddings, a sign that times had changed.
A prince’s place in the Joseon dynasty was a unique one, as its place was between the nobility and the crown prince. He was provided with ceremonial costumes that matched this status, and the characteristics of these costumes could be distinguished for different periods. The study hopes to become an essential source for producers of diverse historical contents and historical reenactments who need direction regarding costumes worn by princes in the late-Joseon dynasty.
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