N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10 (NAA10) is a subunit of N-alpha-terminal protein acetyltransferase that plays a role in many biological processes. Among the six N-alpha-acetyltransferases (NATs) in eukaryotes, the biological significance of the N-terminal acetyl-activity of Naa10 has been the most studied. Recent findings in a few species, including humans, indicate that loss of N-terminal acetylation by NAA10 is associated with developmental defects. However, very little is known about the role of NAA10, and more research is required in relation to the developmental process. This review summarizes recent studies to understand the function of NAA10 in the development of multicellular organisms.