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유아 신체활동역량 평가지표 개발

Title
유아 신체활동역량 평가지표 개발
Other Titles
Development of the evaluation indicators of physical activity competence for preschool children
Authors
한연오
Issue Date
2017
Department/Major
대학원 보건관리학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
김명
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 유아의 신체활동역량 평가지표를 개발하고, 그 타당성을 검증하여, 유아의 정상적인 성장발달과 건강증진에 필요한 신체활동 중심 건강증진 교육의 근거를 마련하고자 하는 데에 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 신체활동역량에 대한 문헌고찰과 전문가 내용타당도 검증을 통해 신체활동역량의 구성요인과 측정항목을 설정하고, 서울과 경기도 수원에 거주하는 5~6세 남녀 유아 228명(5세 남 59명, 여 65명, 6세 남 51명, 여 53명)의 측정 결과를 활용하여 신체활동역량 평가지표 개발과 신체활동역량 측정도구의 신뢰도와 타당도 검증을 진행하였다. 통계처리는 SPSSWIN 21.0, Amos 21.0 프로그램을 사용하여 분석하였다. 본 연구는 연구대상의 권리와 안전 등을 보호하기 위해 이화여자대학교 생명윤리위원회로부터 연구 승인(연구과제번호 121-8)을 받아 연구를 진행하였다. 연구절차에 따른 최종 연구결과 유아 신체활동역량의 구성요인은 ‘기본움직임기술’, ‘건강체력’, ‘신체활동량’, ‘신체활동태도’ 4개 영역으로 구성되며, 구성영역별 하위요인으로 기본움직임기술은 ‘이동성’, ‘안정성’, ‘조작성’, 건강체력은 ‘근력근지구력’, ‘유연성’, ‘신체조성’, 신체활동량은 ‘걸음수’, ‘운동시간’, ‘영상시청시간’, ‘수면시간’, 신체활동태도는 ‘선호도’, ‘즐거움’, ‘자신감’으로 총 13개 하위영역으로 구성하였으며, 이동성, 안정성, 조작성, 유연성은 세부측정항목이 각각 2개로, 신체활동역량 평가를 위한 측정항목은 총 18개로 구성하였다. 신체활동역량 평가지표 제시를 위해서 세부 측정항목별, 성별과 연령에 따른 차이검증을 위한 이원량분석을 실시하였고, 세부 측정항목에 따라 성별, 연령별 매우낮음, 낮음, 보통, 높음, 매우높음으로 상대적인 위치를 파악할 수 있는 5단계 규준과 5백분위부터 95백분위 까지 20개 범주로 구분된 백분위 규준을 제시하였다. 또한, 유아교육현장에서 교육지침으로 활용할 수 있도록 유아 신체활동역량 평가지표 최소건강기준을 함께 제시하였다. 개발된 신체활동태도 설문 도구의 신뢰도와 타당도는 검증되었으며, 정량적인 측정방법으로 개발된 기본움직임기술 측정도구의 기존도구와의 상관관계 분석을 통해 준거타당도도 검증되었다. 개발된 신체활동역량 모형의 적합성 검증을 위해 실시한 확인적 요인분석 결과, 신체활동역량을 구성하는 기본움직임기술, 건강체력, 신체활동량, 신체활동태도의 세부 측정항목 간에 집중타당도와 각 요인별 하위요인 간 판별타당도는 검증되어 4개 구성요인의 18개 측정항목에 대한 신체활동역량 모형이 적합한 수준임을 확인하였다. 신체활동역량 평가지표는 측정-재측정법 신뢰도 분석을 통해 측정도구의 안정성을 확인하였다. 본 연구를 통해 개발된 유아 신체활동역량 평가지표는 유아의 정상적인 성장발달과 건강증진을 위해 종합적이고 포괄적인 측면에서 신체활동 평가도구로, 유아교육현장에서 신체활동역량 측정 및 평가, 교육, 건강관리 측면에서 다양하게 활용이 가능할 것으로 기대하며, 나아가 생애주기 유아의 발육발달, 체력수준, 신체활동 실천율, 비만 등 건강지표 개선에 도움이 될 것으로 기대한다. 이와 같은 연구결과를 토대로 후속연구로서 신체활동역량 중요도와 역량요인의 구성 검토를 위한 건강과의 관련성 연구, 평가지표 표준화를 위한 지속적인 타당도 평가연구, 준거기준 마련을 위한 ROC분석 연구 등이 필요함을 제안하였다.;The purpose of this study is to develop the evaluation indicators of physical activity competence for preschool children, verify the feasibility and prepare the basis of bodily activity-oriented health promoting education required for normal growth development and health promotion of preschool children. For this purpose, the structure elements and measurement categories of the physical activity competence are set through the contemplation of bibliographies on the physical activity competence and verification of professionals on the content feasibility. And, by facilitating the measurement result of 228 preschool children (59 5 year-old boys, 65 year-old girls, 51 6-year old boys and 53 6-year old girls) in both genders at the age of 5~6 years old that reside in Seoul and Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, it carried out the verification of reliability and feasibility of measurement tools of the physical activity competence and development of evaluation indicators. The statistical processing is analyzed by using the SPSSWIN 21.0, Amos 21.0 program. This study has been processed by obtaining the research approval with the research approval (Research Project No. 121-8) from International Review Board of Ewha Womans University in order to protect the rights and safety of subject for research. As a result of the final study under the research procedure, the structural factors of the physical activity competence for preschool children is structured in 4 territories of ‘fundamental movement skills’, ‘health-related physical fitness’, ‘amount of physical activity, and ‘attraction to physical activity’, and as for the sub-factor for each structure territory, the fundamental movement skills is consisted of ‘locomotion’, ‘stability’, and ‘manipulation’, the health-related physical fitness is consisted of ‘muscle strength endurance’, ‘flexibility’, and ‘body composition’, the amount of physical activity is consisted of ‘step count, ‘moderate to vigorous physical activity; MVPA’, ‘screen time’, and ‘sleeping time’, and the attraction to physical activity is consisted of ‘preference’, ‘enjoyment’, and ‘self-confidence’ for a total of 13 lower categories, and locomotion, stability, manipulation, and flexibility have two detailed measurement categories that there are a total of 18 measurement categories for evaluating the physical activity competence. For presenting the evaluation indicators of the physical activity competence, the two-way ANOVA was implemented for verifying the difference following each of the detailed measurement category, gender and age, and it presents the percentile norm classified with 20 categories from the 5 percentile to 95 percentile with the 5-phase norm to find out the relative position for gender following the detailed measurement category, very low, low, normal, high and very high for each age. In addition, it has presented the minimal health standard for the evaluation indicators of physical activity competence for preschool children as it would be facilitated as the educational guideline in the preschool children education sites. Reliability and feasibility of the questionnaire tools for the developed attraction to physical activity have been verified and, through the correlation analysis with the existing tools for the measurement tools for the fundamental movement skills developed with the qualitative measurement method, the standard feasibility has been verified. As a result of confirmative factual analysis implemented for the conformity verification of development model for the physical activity competence, it has been confirmed as the level appropriate for the physical activity competence model regarding the 4 structural factors and 18 measurement categories by verifying the discretion feasibility between the lower factors for each factor and intensive feasibility for fundamental movement skills that composes the physical activity competence as well as the detailed measurement categories of health-related physical fitness, amount of physical activity, and attraction to physical activity. The evaluation indicators of the physical activity competence are confirmed with its stability of the measuring device through the reliability analysis of measurement & re-measurement method. The evaluation indicators of the physical activity competence for preschool children developed through this study is the evaluation tools for the bodily activities in the general and comprehensive aspect for normal growth development and health promotion of preschool children, and it is expected to facilitate diversely in the aspect of measurement, evaluation, education, and health management of the physical activity competence in the educational field of preschool children, and furthermore, it is expected to be of help for the health index improvement for growth advancement, physical strength and bodily activities, practice rate, obesity and forth for preschool children. As the ensuring research on the basis of such research result, it has been proposed for the needs of studies related to health for reviewing the structure of importance and competence factors for physical activity competence, continuous feasibility evaluation study for standardization of evaluation indicators, ROC analysis study for preparing the basis and so forth.
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