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영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계

Title
영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계
Other Titles
Relationship between emotional characteristics, job characteristics and emotional labor of infant teachers : The mediating effect of job affect though experience sampling
Authors
고동섭
Issue Date
2018
Department/Major
대학원 유아교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
박은혜
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계를 살펴보고, 이들의 관계에서 직무정서의 매개효과를 알아보는 것이다. 구체적인 연구문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 영아교사의 정서적 특성, 직무특성, 직무정서, 정서노동의 전반적인 경향은 어떠한가? 2. 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성, 직무정서, 정서노동의 관계는 어떠한가? 2-1. 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 직무정서의 관계는 어떠한가? 2-2. 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계는 어떠한가? 2-3. 직무정서와 정서노동의 관계는 어떠한가? 3. 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계에서 직무정서의 매개효과는 어떠한가? 본 연구의 대상은 서울과 경인지역에 위치한 어린이집의 만 1∼2세 학급 담임교사 104명이다. 영아교사의 정서적 특성으로 정서인식, 정서조절, 공감 변인을 측정하였다. 정서인식은 Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey와 Palfai(1995)가 개발한 Trait Meta Mood Scale(TMMS)를 이수정과 이훈구(1997)가 번안하고 장정주(2009), 우다빈(2016)이 사용한 도구를 사용하였다. 정서조절은 Salovery와 Mayer(1997)의 정서지능 모형에 기초하여 문용린(1999)이 개발한 정서지능검사 도구를 이경례(2016)가 수정·보완한 도구를 사용하였다. 공감은 Davis(1994)의 공감척도인 대인관계 반응지수(Interpersonal Reactivity Index: IRI)를 박성희(1977)가 번안하여 정선미(2016)가 수정·보완한 도구를 사용하였다. 영아교사의 직무특성은 Hackman, Oldham(1975, 1976)의 직무특성이론에 기초한 측정도구를 김학기(2009)가 사용한 도구를 사용하였다. 한편, 영아교사가 직무 중에 경험하는 직무정서와 정서노동을 표집하기 위해 경험표집법(Experience Sampling Method: ESM)을 사용하여 5일간 1시간 간격으로 측정하였다. 직무정서는 PANAS(The Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Waston, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988)를 이진화(2007)가 수정·보완한 도구를 사용하였고, 정서노동은 Gilstrap(2005) 연구에서 사용된 ELS(Emotional labor Scale, Grandey, 2000)을 이진화(2007)가 수정·보완한 도구를 사용하였다. 본 연구에서 수집된 자료는 경험표집법을 통해 반복측정한 직무정서와 정서노동은‘개인 내 수준(within individual level)' 자료로, 설문조사를 통해 1회 측정한 정서적 특성과 직무특성은‘개인 간 수준(between dividual level)' 자료로 구성되었다. 따라서 다수준 자료 분석이 가능한 위계적 선형모형(Hierarchical linear modeling: HLM)을 통해 검증하였다. 검증에 앞서 급내상관계수(Interclass correlation coefficient, ICC)분석을 통해 다수준 분석이 가능한지를 살펴보는 과정을 거쳤다. 자료 분석은 위 평균, 표준편차, Pearson's 상관계수, 위계적 선형모형(HLM) 검증을 실시하였고, 매개모형은 Krull과 Mackinnon(2001)의 절차를 따랐으며 매개효과의 통계적 유의성은 소벨검정(Sobel Test)을 통해 검증하였다. 연구문제에 따른 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 영아교사의 정서적 특성은 정서인식, 정서조절, 공감 중 정서인식이 가장 높게 나타났고, 정서조절이 가장 낮게 나타났다. 또한 직무특성은 기술다양성, 업무정체성, 업무중요성, 자율성, 피드백 중 기술다양성이 가장 높게 나타났고, 자율성이 가장 낮게 나타났다. 영아교사의 직무정서는 긍정정서가 부정정서보다 높게 나타났고, 정서노동은 자연적 행위와 내면적 행위가 비슷한 수준으로 높게 나타났으며 표면적 행위가 가장 낮게 나타났다. 둘째, 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성, 직무정서, 정서노동의 관계는 정서인식, 정서조절, 공감이 높을수록, 직무특성을 높게 인식할수록 긍정정서를 높게 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 부정정서와의 관계는 정서인식, 정서조절이 높을수록, 직무특성 중 자율성을 높게 인식할수록 부정정서를 낮게 느낀 반면, 직무특성 중 기술다양성과 업무중요성을 높게 인식할수록 부정정서를 높게 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 정서노동과의 관계는 정서인식, 공감이 높을수록, 직무특성을 높게 인식할수록 자연적 행위와 내면적 행위를 높게 하는 것으로 나타났다. 표면적 행위와의 관계는 정서인식, 정서조절이 높을수록 표면적 행위를 낮게 하였고, 공감이 높을수록 표면적 행위를 높게 하는 것으로 나타났다. 직무특성은 하위요인 중 자율성만 표면적 행위와 관련이 있었는데, 자율성이 높을수록 표면적 행위를 낮게 하는 것으로 나타났다. 긍정정서와 부정정서는 자연적 행위, 내면적 행위, 표면적 행위와 모두 상관관계가 있었다. 긍정정서가 높을수록 자연적 행위와 내면적 행위를 높게 하고 표면적 행위는 낮게 하였으며, 부정정서가 높을수록 자연적 행위와 내면적 행위는 낮게 하고 표면적 행위는 높게 하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계에서 직무정서의 매개효과는 정서인식 중 정서인식명확성, 공감 중 타인관점 취하기, 직무특성 중 업무중요성과 정서노동의 관계에서 긍정정서의 매개효과가 나타났다. 본 연구는 영아교사의 정서적 특성 및 직무특성과 정서노동의 관계를 다수준 분석을 통해 살펴보았고, 경험표집의 방법적 접근을 통해 직무정서가 갖는 효과를 제시하였다는 데에 의의가 있다. 본 연구결과에 기초하여 영아교사의 정서인식, 정서조절, 공감 역량을 향상시킬 수 있는 교사교육의 제공, 영아교사직에 대한 직무특성 인식을 제고할 수 있는 제도적 방안, 전문성을 통한 긍정정서 경험의 축적, 영아교사의 효과적인 정서노동을 수행을 지원하는 다양한 방안 모색 등을 시사점으로 제시하였다.; The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between emotional characteristics, job characteristics and emotional labor of infant teachers, and to investigate the mediating effect of job affect in these relationships. Specific research questions are as follows. 1. What are the overall trends of emotional characteristics, job characteristics, job affect, and emotional labor of infant teachers? 2. How is the relationship between emotional characteristics and job characteristics, job affect and emotional labor of infant teachers? 2-1. How is the relationship between emotional characteristics, job characteristics and job affect? 2-2. How is the relationship between emotional characteristics, job characteristics and emotional labor? 2-3. How is the relationship between job affect and emotional labor? 3. What are the mediating effects of job affect in the relationship between emotional characteristics, job characteristics and emotional labor of infant teachers? The subjects of the study are 104 infant teachers of 1 to 2-year-old classroom in a child care center located in Seoul and Gyeong-In area. Emotional perception, emotional control, and empathy variables were measured in terms of emotional characteristics of infant teachers. The emotional perception is based on the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) developed by Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey and Palfai(1997) and made by Lee Su-jung and Lee Hun-gu(1997) and utilized tools used by Jang Jung-ju(1997) and Woo Dabin(2016). Emotional control was based on the emotional intelligence model of Salovery and Mayer(1997) and used tools which were modified and supplemented by Lee Gyeong-Rae(2016) from emotional intelligence test tools developed by Moon Yong-lin(1999). As for empathy, Interpersonal Reactivity Index(IRI), which is the empathy scale of Davis(1994) was invented by Park Sung-hee(1977) and tools modified and supplemented by Jung Sun-mi(2016) were used. As for job characteristics of infant teachers, measure tools based on the job characteristics theory of Hackman, Oldham(1975, 1976), utilizing the tools used by Kim Hakki(2009). On the other hand, to extract the job affect and emotional labor experienced by infant teachers, the Experience Sampling Method(ESM) was utilized to measure at 1 hour interval for 5 days. For job affect, tools which were modified and supplemented from PANAS(The Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Waston, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) by Lee Jin-hwa(2007) were used, and for emotional labor, tools which were modified and supplemented from ELS(Emotional labor Scale, Grandey, 2000) used in Gilstrap(2005) by Lee Jin-hwa(2007) were used. The data collected in the study consist of job affect which is repeatedly measured from ESM and emotional labor which is collected within individual level. And emotional characteristics which are collected once through survey, and job characteristics consist of data which is a collected between individual level. Therefore, the data were verified through Hierarchical Linear Modeling(HLM) which enables multi-level analysis. Before verifying, it went through the process of verification to figure out whether multi-level analysis is possible or not, through Interclass Correlation Coefficient(ICC). The data were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, Pearson's α, and HLM. The mediated model followed the procedure of Krull and Mackinnon(2001). and the statistical significance of the mediator effect was verified using the Sobel test. The results of the research questions are as follows. First, in terms of the infant teachers' emotional characteristics, emotional perception was shown to be the highest among emotional perception, emotional control, and empathy, while emotional control was shown to be the lowest. Also, as for job characteristics skill variety was shown to be the highest among skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, while autonomy was the lowest. Positive emotions of infant teachers outweighed negative emotions. Emotional labor showed a similar level of natural acting an deep acting, which was quite high, and surface acting was shown to be the lowest. Second, it was revealed that the higher the level of recognition of emotional perception, emotional control, empathy and job characteristics, the higher they tend to feel positive emotions. In addition, in terms of the relationship with negative emotions, teachers tend to feel negative emotion less, as the emotional perception and the emotional control was higher, while it was seen that teachers tend to feel negative emotions more, as they considered skill variety and task significance more highly among job characteristics. As for the job characteristics, only autonomy was related to surface acting among the sub-factors. It was seen that the higher the autonomy, the lower the surface acting. Positive emotions and negative emotions were all correlated with natural acting, deep acting, and surface acting. The higher the positive emotions, the higher the natural acting and the lower the surface acting. It was also seen that the higher the negative emotions, the lower the natural and deep acting, while the surface acting increased. On the other hand, the relationship with emotional labor showed that the higher the perception of emotion, the higher empathy, the higher perception of job characteristics, the higher the natural acting and deep acting. The relationship between emotional perception and emotional regulation was lower in the relationship with surface acting and the higher the emotional level, the higher the surface acting. As for the job characteristics, only autonomy was related to surface acting among the sub-factors. The higher the autonomy, the lower the surface acting. Positive emotions and negative emotions were all correlated with natural acting, deep acting, and surface acting. The higher the positive emotions, the higher the natural acting and deep acting and the lower the surface acting. The higher the negative emotions, the lower the natural acting and deep acting and the higher the surface acting. Third, the mediating effect of job affect on emotional characteristics and job characteristics and emotional labor of infant teachers was shown during the emotional perception of emotion, and the mediation of positive emotions effect was shown in relation to emotional labor. The study is meaningful in that it examined the relationship between emotional and job characteristics and emotional labor of infant teachers through multi-level analysis and suggested the effects of emotions through the methodological approach of ESM. Based on the results of the study, it elicited the emotional awareness of infant teachers, emotional control, providing teacher education to improve empathy capacity, systematic approach to improve recognition of job characteristics of infant teacher, accumulation of positive emotional experience through professionalism, and finding various ways to support the effective emotional labor of infant teachers.
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