View : 269 Download: 0

한국아파트소설의 공간체험 연구

Title
한국아파트소설의 공간체험 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Experiences of Space in Korean Apartment Fiction : focusing on female writers’ short stories of the 1970s to 1990s
Authors
BOWMAN, SOPHIE
Issue Date
2018
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
연남경
Abstract
본고의 목적은 여성소설에 나타난 주거 공간에 대한 연구를 보충하는 것과 동시에 한국아파트소설에 대한 여성작가들의 기여와 그 성격을 밝히는 것이다. 아파트라는 공간 체험의 재현과 그 공간을 구축하는 인간관계의 정황을 살펴봄으로써, 1970년대부터 1990년대 아파트소설들이 제시하는 공간에 대한 인식과 작가들이 유도하는 의식의 변화를 관찰하려고 한다. ‘아파트’라는 거주 형식은 한국에만 존재하는 것은 아니지만, 그 역사와 의미, 구조와 가치는 지극히 한국적인 성격을 갖고 있다. 또한 아파트를 다루는 여성소설의 의도와 목소리는 아파트가 상징하는 사회 구조와 젠더 프레임, 자본주의와 노동 분배가 어떻게 소설이라는 미적 형식 속에서 다루어졌는지 한 눈에 이해할 수 있게 한다. 본고에서 주목하는 작품은 박완서, 오정희, 서영은, 강석경, 한강, 전경린, 은희경과 하성란의 작품 중 아파트가 등장하는 단편소설이다. 아파트의 개념과 상징, 아파트에서 살아가는 의미는 1970년대 박완서의 소설에서 상당 부분 형성되어 있었다. 그러나 시간이 흐르며 아파트를 둘러싼 의미는 다양한 양상으로 변화되었고, 1990년대에 이르러서 여성작가들은 더욱 다양한 소재와 소설적 방식들을 취하여 아파트를 다루었다. 아파트는 경제와 사회 변화의 큰 흐름을 반영하는 동시에, 이에 따른 젠더 구조와 낙인을 더욱 심화하여 보여주는 공간이다. 이는 첫째로 아파트라는 공간이 비단 거주 공간일 뿐만 아니라 한국적 삶의 단면을 보여줌을 나타낸다. 또한, 이러한 공간적 특징은 ‘아파트에서의 편리한 삶이 여성 문제를 완화하였다’는 담론에 대해 정면으로 반박한다. 아파트에 구속된 여성들의 삶은 아파트가 젠더 불평등에서 해소하기는커녕 오히려 심화시키는 터전이었음을 보여준다. 이러한 맥락에서 본고는 여성작가가 묘사하는 아파트의 형상, 여성들의 아파트 체험, 그리고 그 인물을 바라보는 작가의 시선을 살펴보았으며, 이 과정에서 많은 작가들이 아파트 내에서의 인간관계에 주목하고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 인간관계와 관련하여 아파트라는 공간은, 기존의 아파트 담론에서 논의되었던 정겨운 공간이나 보금자리를 벗어난 다른 시각을 제시한다. 그것은 오히려 공포, 징그러움, 무거움 등으로 형상화되어, 1990년대까지도 여전히 새로운 곳으로 인식되었던 아파트가 실제 삶에서는 부정적 의미를 내포하는 공간으로 받아들여지고 있었음을 보여준다. 1970년대에 새로운 주거 공간으로 각광받던 아파트가 권태로운 공간이 되기까지는 30년밖에 걸리지 않았다. 그러나 앞으로의 한국 역사에서 아파트의 등장만큼 커다란 거주 형태의 변화가 있으리라고 예상하기는 쉽지 않다. 다세대 가구에서 핵가족, 일인 가구로의 이행 등 가족 구성원의 변화는 계속되지만 그 변화는 아파트와 함께 진행되고 있다. 아파트의 반복적인 공간 구조와 보장된 익명성은 개인성을 상실하고 더욱 고독해지는 현대인들에게 가장 알맞은 터전으로 자리 잡았다. 작품 속 인물들이 아파트라는 공간을 경험하는 방식과 그것을 전달하는 방식은 ‘아파트’로 표상되는 삶에 대한 이해다. 이에 따라 본고는 아파트에 대한 비판, 주부의 삶, 핵가족의 여성상 등에 주목했던 기존 연구의 성과를 계승하면서도 한발 더 나아간다. 즉 아파트 속에서 이루어지는 여성들의 경험과 그리고 그 경험의 전달 방식에 주목하고 있다. 이는 기존 연구에서 바라보지 못했던 아파트라는 사회문화적 공간성과 여성성의 상관성에 주목하여, 여성소설에 나타난 아파트의 의미를 밝힌다는 의의를 지닌다.;The aim of this study is to add to research on the home in women’s fiction and highlight the overwhelming contribution of female writers to Korean apartment fiction while analyzing the character of this body of work. By examining the reproduction of experiences of apartment spaces and the human relationships which take place within them, it was possible to identify the spatial awareness suggested in apartment novels from the 1970s to 1990s and the change in such awareness that these works sought to induce in their readers. The form of housing called ap’at’ŭ, or ‘apartment,’ does not only exist in South Korea, but the history and significance it holds, the particularity of the architectural structures and the social and economic values they represent, are extremely Korean in character. At the same time, in the intentions and voices with which stories by female writers deal with apartments, it is possible to gain an understanding of how the social structures, gender frameworks, capitalism, and division of labor that the apartment represents have been creatively addressed in the form of literary fiction. The literary works examined in this study are selected from among the short stories and novellas of Park Wansuh, Oh Junghee, So Young-en, Kang Sok-kyong, Han Kang, Jon Kyongnin, Un Heekyung, and Ha Seong-nan, in which apartments play a prominent role. A highly artistic conceptualization of apartments and a cutting understanding of what it means to live one’s life in an apartment was already fully developed in Park Wansuh’s short stories written in the 1970s. However, along with the changing times and changes in what different kinds of apartments signified, when it came to the 1990s, female writers were handling the apartment with ever more diverse fictional methods. While reflecting the major flows of social and economic change, the apartment is a space which reveals the gender structures and labels which accompanied such change with even greater intensity than other forms of space. This is because the apartment is not simply a residential space but also stands as a symbol for the modern urban Korean lifestyle. In addition, this kind of spatial characteristic refutes head-on discourses which claim that ‘the convenience of life in apartments has solved all women’s problems.’ Indeed, the lives of women confined to apartments reflected in the literature analyzed show that apartments did not work to alleviate gender inequality in any meaningful way, but rather became a ground on which it was intensified. In this context, this study examined the experiences of women in apartments, the state of apartments as described by female writers, and the way writers dealt with their characters. In this process it was identified that many writers actually focused most on the human relationships being enacted within and around apartments. Looking at the space of the apartment through the lens of human relationships provides a different perspective, one that departs from ideas of home as somewhere warm and welcoming, as suggested by many classic theorists of space, or the idea of the apartment as a comforting nest. Instead, the apartment is portrayed as a dead-weight, or something utterly fragile, completely closed off to the world, or constantly under surveillance, and at times even a terrifying place. The fact that into the 1990s literary depictions continued to demand the apartment be recognized anew shows that in the eyes of these female authors it was understood as an overwhelmingly negative space, or at least a fitting canvas for negative relationships. It took only three decades for the apartment to go from receiving the spotlight as a new form of residence in the 1970s, to becoming something dull, commonplace and monotonous in the 1990s. However, it is hard to imagine that there will be another such paradigm shift in forms of housing in South Korea as was brought about by the emergence of the apartment. Change to average family habitation structures continues—from multi-generational households to nuclear family households, and now the increasing prevalence of one-person households—but such change has not yet signaled the end of the apartment as Korea’s most prominent form of housing. Indeed, the repeating structures and guaranteed anonymity of the apartment have cemented their place as the most fitting setting for modern lives which have lost their uniqueness while becoming ever-more isolated. Taking on the outcomes of previous research on these works of literature which focused on identifying criticism of the apartment, life as a housewife, and the two-dimensional image of women in nuclear families, this study goes one step further. This is done by focusing on the experiences of women in apartments and the way in which these experiences are expressed. The ways characters in the works analyzed experience the apartment space and how this is presented shows awareness of the finitude of life as reflected in the construction and redevelopment of apartments, and insight into how the structures of developmental capitalism color relationships between apartment dwellers. This attention to the relationship between the socio-cultural space of the apartment and what is expected of women has the significance of identifying the meaning of the apartment in fiction by female writers as a space that can be deadly if it is allowed to become the sole focus of life.
Fulltext
Show the fulltext
Appears in Collections:
일반대학원 > 국어국문학과 > Theses_Master
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML


qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE