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Association of emotional labor and occupational stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in the republic of Korea: A cross-sectional study
- Association of emotional labor and occupational stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in the republic of Korea: A cross-sectional study
- Chung Y.-J.; Jung W.-C.; Kim H.; Cho S.-S.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 14, no. 12
- Emotional labor; Job insecurity; Social support; Women sales workers; Workplace mistreatment depressive symptoms
- MDPI AG
- Document Type
- In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the association of these stressors with depressive symptoms. Scores for job stress subscales such as job demand, job control, and job insecurity were higher among sales workers than among manual workers (p < 0.01). The multiple regression analysis revealed the association between occupation and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, educational level, cohabiting status, and occupational stressors (sβ = 0.08, p = 0.04). A significant interaction effect between occupation and social support was also observed in this model (sβ = -0.09, p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis stratified by occupation showed that job demand, job insecurity, and workplace mistreatment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both occupations (p < 0.05), although the strength of statistical associations were slightly different. We found negative associations of social support (sβ = -0.22, p < 0.01) and emotional effort (sβ = -0.17, p < 0.01) with depressive symptoms in another multiple regression model for sales workers. Emotional dissonance (sβ = 0.23, p < 0.01) showed positive association with depressive symptoms in this model. The result of this study indicated that reducing occupational stressors would be effective for women sales workers to prevent depressive symptoms. In particular, promoting social support could be the most effective way to promote women sales workers’ mental health. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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