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Change of Volatile Compounds in Apples Spoiled by Fungal Pathogens During Decay Periods

Title
Change of Volatile Compounds in Apples Spoiled by Fungal Pathogens During Decay Periods
Authors
김성미
Issue Date
2017
Department/Major
대학원 식품공학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김영석
Abstract
수확한 과일의 저장 기간은 후 숙성 과정을 통해 최상의 품질에 도달하도록 하는 시기인 동시에 부패, 질병이 일어나기 쉬운 단계이기도 하다. 그 중 사과는 postharvest disease에 특히나 취약한 품종으로, 주로 병원성 균들에 의해 부패가 진행된다. 병원성 균의 효소작용에 의한 세포벽의 함몰이나 다양한 1, 2차 대사산물의 생성에 의해 새로운 휘발성 유기 성분들이 발생하며 이러한 향기 성분들은 부패 징후를 감지하는 factor로 이용할 수 있다. 따라서 사과의 주요 부패 원인 균인 Penicillium expansum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Alternaria alternate를 사과에 인공 접종하여 변화하는 휘발성 향기 성분을 분석하여 각 부패 단계별, 균주 별로 어떤 차이가 있는지 살펴보고 더 나아가, 부패가 퍼지기 전에 부패를 미리 감지할 수 있는 초기 부패 휘발성분을 밝히고자 하였다. 그 결과, 전반적인 시료에서ethanol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, styrene, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl octanoate가 부패가 진행되면서 새롭게 생성 또는 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 각 균에 따라서는 Penicillium expansum 균에서는 1-octen-3-ol, phenylmethanol, benzene, 1-methoxy-3-methylbenzene, diethyl catbonate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, propyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate가 특이적으로 생성, 증가하였으며, Botryosphaeria dothidea 균에서는 2-methylpropano-1-ol, and 2-phenylethanol, benzene, 1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylbenzene, dl-limonene, α-terpinene, α-terpinolene, (E)-hex-3-enyl acetate 성분들이, Alternaria alternate 균에서는 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, phenylmethanol, acetophenone 성분들이 다른 균들과 차별적으로 생성, 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 1% 이하의 초기 부패단계에서 검출된 성분으로는 ethanol, benzaldehyde, ethylbenzene, styrene, 1-methoxy-3-methylbenzene, methyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoate 등이 주요 증가 성분으로 검출 되었다.;The postharvest disease were mainly caused by pathogenic fungi in apples, leading to the change of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, three major pathogens isolated from Fuji, Penicillium expansum, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Alternaria alternate, were inoculated onto disease-free Fuji apples and VOCs released were analyzed using GC-MS combined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to compare the changes in VOCs according to the decay index as well as pathogen species. Moreover, to predict the decay before the infection spreads, analysis the volatile changes in the early stage of decay. After apples were inoculated with pathogens, ethanol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, styrene and some ethyl esters, such as ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and ethyl octanoate, occupied major VOCs during decay. The specific volatile compounds according to pathogen species were 1-octen-3-ol, phenylmethanol, benzene, 1-methoxy-3-methylbenzene, diethyl catbonate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, propyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate in Penicillium expansum, 2-methylpropano-1-ol, and 2-phenylethanol, benzene, 1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylbenzene, dl-limonene, α-terpinene, α-terpinolene and (E)-hex-3-enyl acetate in Botryosphaeria dothidea and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, phenylmethanol and acetophenone in Alternaria alternate. The major early detect decay compounds, emitted shortly after pathogen inoculated, were methyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoate, and 1-methoxy-3-methylbenzene. Also, ethanol, benzaldehyde, ethylbenzene, syrene, methyl butanoate, 3-metylbutyl propanoate, propyl hexanoate and 2-methylbutyl heptanoate were increased by more than 2-fold in the initial stage of decay.
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